Compendium of World History - Volume 2
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Compendium of World History - Volume 2

Chapter X:


   Strange as it may seem, the Peruvian Indians preserved their history back to Babel. Pre-Inca records specifically refer to and date correctly the reigns of Cush, Nimrod and Horus, or Gilgamesh! Every generation of rulers over the children of Tiras are named to the coming of the Incas. Yet today all this has been lost to public knowledge.


   Modern scholars have done little to acquaint us with the true history of early Peru. In the early centuries following the Spanish conquest of Peru and neighboring regions, many native records came into the possession of the conquerors. The assumption that the Incas knew only how to tie knots in a string to remind them of the past is absurd. Granted, the 'quipus' — or knotted strings — were used.
   The Peruvian Indians also painted records of past events. They had trained priests whose function was to record and repeat the traditions of the past. The fact that the Spanish did recover the history of the Peruvian Indians from the beginning is in itself proof that a great many records were available. No nation which was able to achieve the architectural wonders of the Peruvian highlands would lack the means to preserve its heritage.
   The modern view of Peruvian history is that it cannot be established more than a century before the commencement of the Spanish colonial period. Archaeologists have done amazingly well in recovering cultural artifacts buried in the ground, but they have thus far been unwilling to associate what they find with early Peruvian history found in the authentic Indian records by the conquerors. The slightest study of Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa's "History of the Incas" would have confirmed the accuracy of his outline. Archaeology everywhere substantiates the written record wherever it has been carefully preserved.
   Sir Clements Markham has contributed heavily toward Inca and Pre-Inca studies by his two books "The Incas of Peru" and "History of the Incas." The former contains the list of kings from the beginning as preserved by Montesinos. It gives just over 100 names out of which nearly 80% have the lengths of reign preserved. Montesinos did not give sufficient information to establish every reign, but the list is so nearly complete that it is not at all difficult to determine contemporary events between Peru and the rest of the world. The latter volume preserves an invaluable outline of the Inca period.


   Archaeologists are not settled on terminology, but they have described Peruvian remains rather well. The story begins with an Incipient Era of hunting and early agriculture. There follows a Developmental Era that is usually not well divided. It ought to be expressed in two, rather than three phases — the Formative and the Cultist — to use archaeological Jargon. There is great technical progress and a widespread religious cult. A complete break ends the Cultist period.
   Thereafter a Florescent Era appears, around 350 B.C., with many new techniques indicative of a dynamic period. In some ways the level of the artistic sense, however, does not advance.
   Then comes a Climactic Era, commencing shortly after 500 A.D. It is divided into Expansionist, Urbanist and Imperialist periods. The Expansionist commences with conquest and political and social unification. It breaks down into disruption and decadence. Local autonomy with large centers of population characterize the Urbanist. The Imperialist is a great military Empire, which was superseded, in 1532, by the Spanish Colonial period.
   Archaeologists and historians alike have limited the Inca rule exclusively to the Imperialist and generally date it around 1440. Had they read the Inca history they would have found that the entire Climactic Era, beginning shortly after 500 A.D. belongs to the Incas. Sarmiento de Gamboa commences Inca rule in 565 A.D. And rightly so. The history of the Inca royal family corresponds in exact detail, period by period, with Expansionist, Urbanist and Imperialist.
   One objection often presented to such an extensive Inca period is the unusually long length of life necessitated for the rulers. Several are over a hundred years old. The argument would be valid if it were possible to demonstrate that human beings cannot live that long! But human beings do often live to be well over one hundred years of age. For example, long after Moses wrote that the life span of man centers about 70 years, individuals are still recorded as living past 120 years. In those days the Peruvian highlands were virgin, and fit for vigorous living. In some instances the length of reign is due to birth of a son in the Inca's old age — or to a birth of an heir after the death of a predecessor. History, when confirmed by archaeology, should be allowed to speak for itself.
   Now to illustrate the history of Peru, from the Tower of Babel to the Spanish Colonial period. Notice that the names of even the earliest rulers appear in the native dialect. Many of the names are titles or epithets.
Names of Peruvians Lengths of Reign Dates
Beginning at Babel

The first 18 are of the
Pirua Dynasty. The
relationship of one to
another is not always

1. Pirua Pacari Manco (Ayar 60 2254-2194
Uchu), the Cush of the

2. Manco Capac I, the Nimrod 30 2194-2164
of Scripture. He built the
first city after the flood.
(Markham, "Hist. of the Incas",
p. 51)

3. Huanacahui Pirua 50 2164-2114

4. Sinchi Cozque 60 2114-2054

5. Inti Capac Yupanqui 50 2054-2004

6. Manco Capac II, is Horus; 20 2004-1984
note that in Inca records
he has same name as Nimrod
does in Inca tradition.


   The date 2004 is a remarkable parallel for the return to power of Horus in Mesopotamia in 2006. Clearly the ancestors of the Peruvians lived outside Mesopotamia, bordering on the River Tyras. As confirmation of the exactness of Peruvian material, compare the following figures which have been extracted from the earliest history of Burma. Notice the same figure 2004 for Maradzi II. The ancestors of the Burmese Arakan people were at that time also living in the steppes of Russia.

Early Kings who Ruled Lengths of Reign Dates
Over People who now from Burmese Records
live in Arakan, Burma (Stokvls' "Manuel")

Marayu, is Cush 62 2254-2192

Maradzi I, is Nimrod 32 2192-2160
The name is derived from
the Hebrew root "marad," to
rebel. A Maradzu is a
great rebel.

Maraonleng 53 2160-2107

Mararwayleng 48 2107-2059

Marabheng 55 2059-2004

Maradzi II, is Horus 33 2004-1971,
   Now to continue with the Peruvian Kings.
Figures below
are approxi-
mately the
points of reign
since the
lengths of
reign are in
some cases lost.

7. Tupac Capac — 1950

8. Tini Capac Yupanqui — 1900

9. Titu Capac Yupanqui — 1875

10. Inti Capac Pirua Amaru — 1850

11. Capac Sayhua Capac 60 1800

12. Capac Tinia Yupanqui 40 1750

13. Ayar Tacko 25 1725

14. Huascar Titu 30 1700

15. Quispi Titu — 1675

16. Titu Yupanqui Patchacutec I — 1650

17. Titu Capac 25 1625

18. Paullu Ticac Pirua 30 1600

A new line of kings
commences with Amauta.
The word signifies a
Magian, or priest.

19. Lloque Tesag Amauta, a priest 50 1575
or Magian
   Is there not a connection here with the Empire of Sargon and his sons in Mesopotamia? They had a vast empire, and on more than one occasion Sargon voyaged across the seas. (See Pritchard's "Ancient Near Eastern Texts".)
20. Cayo Manco Amauta I — 1525

21. Huascar Titu Tupac 33 1500

22 Manco Capac III Amauta 50 1450

23 Ticac Pupac 30 1425

24. Paullu Tutu Capac 19 1400

25. Cayo Manco Amauta II 30 1375

26. Marasco Patchacutec 40 1325

27. Paullu Atauchi Capac — 1300

28. Lluqui Yupanqui 14 1275

29. Lluqui Ticac 8 1265

30. Capac Yupanqui I 50 1225

31. Tupac Yupanqui I 18 1200

32. Manco Auqui Tupac Patchacutee 50 1150

33. Sinchi Apusqui Huarma
Huiracocha 40 1120

34. Auqui Quitu Atauchi 4 1100

35. Ayay Manco — 1075

36. Huiracocha Capac 15 1060

37. Tchinchi Roca Amauta 20 1040

38. Tupac Amaru Amauta 25 1020

39. Capac Raymi Amauta — 1000
   This ruler instituted certain festivals in his name. He is parallel with the time of Odin I of Denmark and of Solomon. He was the mainspring behind the development of what archaeologists call the Cultist Era. This Era is illustrative of the contact between Old and New World during certain significant ages.
40. IllJa Tupac 3 —

41. Tupac Amauta 3 990

42. Huanacauri I 4 —

43. Toca Corca Apu Capac 45 960

44. Huampar Xayri Tupac I 32 925

45. Hinac Huillja Amauta Pachacuti 35 900

46. Capac Yupanqui II Amauta 35 860

47. Huampar Xayri Tupac II — 830

48. Cayo Manqui Auqui 3 820

49. Hinac Huillja 30 800

50. Inti Capac Amauta 30 760

51. Ayar Manco Capac — 730

52. Yahuar Huquiz, gives his 30 710
name to five intercalary
days added to calendar to
adjust spring equinox

53. Capac Titu Yupanqui 23 680

54. Tupac Curi I Amauta 39 640

55. Tupac Curi II 40 600

56. Huillcanota Amauta 60 540

57. Tupac Yupanqui II 43 500

58. Illja Tupac Capac 4 —

59. Titu Raymi Cozque 31 460

60. Huqui Nina Auqui 43 430

61. Manco Capac IV 23 390

62. Cayo Manco Capac 20 365

63. Sinchi Ayar Manco 7 360
   A major invasion occurs in his reign from the Southeast. This begins the true Florescent Era, as labeled by archaeologists.
64. Huaman Tacko Amauta 5 355

65. Titu Yupanqui Pachacuti II — —

66. Titu Huaman Quitu — 325

67. Cozque Huaman Titu — —

68. Cuis Manco 50 275

69. Huillja Titu 30 240

70. Xayri Tupac 40 200

71. Tupac Yupanqui III 25 175

72. Huayna Tupac I 37 140

73. Huanacauri II 10 130

74. Huillja Huaman 60 70

75. Huaman Capac 40 30

76. Paullu Raymi 19 10

77. Manco Capac V Amauta — 10

78. Auqui Atau Huillja 35 40

79. Manco Titu Capac 32 90

80. Huayna Tupac II 50 140

81. Tupac Cauri Pachacuti — 170

82. Arantial — 200

83. Huari Titu Capac — 225

84. Huispa Titu Auqui 18 250

85. Toco Cozque — 270

86. Ayar Manco 22 290

87. Cuntur Roca — 320

88. Amaru — 340

From here on
a definite
sequence of
dates is

89. Sinchi Roca 41 365-406

90. Illja Toca 62 406-468

91. Lluqui Yupanqui 45 468-513

92. Roca Titu 25 513-538

93. Inti Mayta Capac Pachacuti 27 538-565
   This concludes the Pre-Inca Era. Notice that when Montesino's account is properly begun at Babel it is in perfect harmony with the time element in the next era.


   The succeeding chart illustrates the story of the great Inca period. It begins in 565. Is it significant that this is the year of a major movement of peripheral peoples out of the British Isles in the days of Gildas? ("Ency. Brit.", art. "Cave," in eleventh ed.) The Incas were of a complexion much lighter than their subjects.
   The comments in the following section may be verified in J. A. Mason's "Ancient Civilizations of Peru", p. 110.
Inca Kings Lengths of Reign Dates
or Until an Heir According

Chosen to Sarmiento

Beginning of Expansionist Period

1. Manco Capac 100 565-665

2. Sinchi Roca 19 665-684

According to Garcilassan's
account this king begins

3. Lloqui Yupanqui 111 684-795

Extended domain to Lake Titicaca.

4. Mayta Capac 110 795-905

Increases realm to Tiahuanaco
and headwaters of coastal
rivers. He is the first great

5. Capac Yupanqui 89 905-994

Troubles develop toward end
of his reign.

The succeeding kings belong to the Urbanist period.

6. Inca Roca 103 994-1097

Near total collapse at
beginning of his reign. He
subjugates areas only 20
miles from capital of Cuxco.

7. Titu Cuisi Hualpa 96 1097-1193

8. Viracocha Inca 101 1193-1294

Wars with Chanca, Lupaca and
Colla. His own capital besieged.

Inca Urcon, dethroned — —

The succeeding Incas belong to the Imperialist period.

9. Inca (Cusi) Yupanqui
Pachacuti 103 1294-1397

Begins conquests in the
vicinity of Cuzco.

10. Tupac Inca Yupanqui 67 1397-1464

11 Huayna Capac 60 1464-1524

12. Huascar Inca 7 1524-1531

13. Atahuallpa 2 1531-1533

Tupac Huallpa — 1533

14. Manco Inca, crowned by
Pizarro 11 1533-1544

Xayri Tupac 17 1544-1561

Quispe Yupanqui 8 1561-1569

Tupac Amaru 3 1569-1572

   With this restoration, though partly incomplete, the early history of South America comes into its proper place in World History.

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Publication Date: 1969
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