Compendium of World History - Volume 2
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Compendium of World History - Volume 2

Chapter VI:


   The Key to the history of the New World has been lost. Not a single historian or archaeologist knows the true origin of American Indian civilization. And no wonder! They have thrown away the keys to that history. One of those keys will be found in Danish history. The other — and most important — key in the checkered history of rugged Scotland.


   The famous eight-volume "History of Scotland", by John Hill Burton, begins the history of Scotland this way: "It is in the year 80 of the Christian era that the territory in later times known as Scotland comes out of utter darkness, and is seen to join the current of authentic history. In that year Julius Agricola brought Roman troops north ...."
   This is a typical — but mistaken — view of Scottish history.
   Historians have made an idol out of Roman records. What the Romans either refused to preserve, or carelessly neglected to record, is all too often treated with contempt by modern historians. Scotland was never long under the Roman heel. The Romans were not particularly interested in its rocky highlands. Consequently they did not occupy themselves with recording the major events of the past that befell its inhabitants.
   Today, numerous documents are available covering the history of Scotland from very early times. These chronicles are usually disparaged in historical circles — or at most treated as quaint and curious documents. But to restore the lost history of Scotland from them is frowned on with disdain.
   Yet in these records are the missing links which, until now, have sundered the Old World from the New. It is time the true story of Scotland were made known. Here, in outline form, are the major events that make Scottish history.


   The geographic location of Scotland is important in its history. Scotland is the link between Scandinavia and Britain and Ireland. Its shores provide control of the far reaches of the North Sea and the ocean. Scotland was consequently invaded, peaceably and by frightful devastation, several times in its history.
   The first permanent settlement of Scotland, for which we have recorded history, begins with the coming of Danus I of Denmark in 1040. When the Cimbric tribes called upon an heir of the Trojan throne to establish his domain in Denmark, Odin responded immediately.
   Out of southeastern Europe he marched into Denmark. Coming with him was a mixed tribe known as the Agathyrsi. Agathirsi was their name, declares an old Scottish Chronicle. ("Controversial Issues in Scottish History", by W. H. Gregg, p. 125.) Odin settled them in Scotland under their leader Cruithne — after whom they were called Cruithnians or Cruithne. Herodotus, the Greek historian, traces the Agathyrsi to their origin in the Scythian plains of what is now the southern Ukraine The Agathyrsi were a mixed race. Various struggles led to a catastrophe among the Agathyrsi who came with Odin. They found themselves without women!
   As a consequence they sought wives among neighboring tribes. They landed in Ireland at the time of the establishment of the Milesian monarchy under Ghede the Herimon (1016-1002). Following a few skirmishess an agreement was reached. The Milesians of Ireland agreed to give wives to the Agathyrsi from their daughters on one condition: that the Agathyrsi would pass on their inheritance through their daughters, not their sons. This was to acknowledge that any royalty which might follow derived kingship from their Milesian wives, not from the Agathyrsi men.
   On this condition the Agathyrsi departed again for Scotland.


   The women who journeyed in that day to Scotland were Milesians — of the family of Mileadh. In volume I of the Compendium the history of the kingly line from Mileadh to the present throne in Great Britain was given in its entirety. Its ancient connection with the throne of David, in Judah, was made plain. But the genealogy of Mileadh was not included.
   The line of Mileadh, in Irish records, properly begins with Easru in Egypt. The name Easru is Old Irish for Ezra or Azariah.
   Easru was a friend of Moses. One Irish tradition has him crossing the Red Sea with the children of Israel. Another tradition has him journeying, after the Exodus, to Scythia. Irish annalists became confused by these two movements of Easru and his family. It never occurred to them that he might have crossed the Red Sea with Moses, and then, at a later time journeyed to Scythia.
   No Irish records preserve the ancestry of Easru or Azariah. Many myths were later created by Irish monks to account for this blank. It seems not to have occurred to them that the Bible might record the ancestry of Easru, ending at the Exodus.
   The previous volume of the Compendium established the significant fact that the symbol of the line of Easru and Mileadh was the Crimson or Red Branch — signifying the royal line Zarah, Judah's son (Genesis 38:30). Now open the Bible to the genealogy of Judah. "And the sons of Zarah: Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, and Calcol, and Dara .... And the sons of Ethan: Azariah" (I Chronicles 2:6, 8).
   Here is an Azariah, of the family of Judah — and of Zarah, the Red Branch. Azariah was of the same generation as Moses — both were great-great-grandsons of Jacob (compare with Exodus 6:16-20). Notice also that Azariah's descendants did not enter Palestine. His genealogy is not continued beyond the Exodus. That is significant.
   Further, the name Azariah in Hebrew is often shortened to Ezra (see any Biblical encyclopaedia). Its Old Irish form would be Easru. So here we have an Azariah (or Ezra), of the same generation as Moses, Living at the time of the Exodus, whose descendants did not settle in Palestine, and who was of the Crimson Branch. At the same time Irish history reveals an Easru — Old Irish for Azariah or Ezra — living in Moses' day, crossing the Red Sea, but not settling in Palestine, whose descendants in after generations used the symbol of the Crimson Branch! Here is the line of Zarah — Judah! Easru is Azariah, Judah's great-great-grandson.
   In chart form (from the Bible and Stokvis' Manuel) the Milesian princely line appears thus:

   Azariah, who is Easru
   Eibher Scot
   Heber Glunfionn
   Eimhear Glas

   Ghede the Herimon, now gave daughters of the royal family to the Cruithne. From these noble women sprang a line of kings that finally united with the Scots in the person of Kenneth Mac Alpin in 843.
   In after ages the Cruithne came to be known, falsely, as Picts. The true Picts were another people altogether — an uncivilized people who painted themselves. Because the Cruithne ruled over the Picts who lived in the Scottish highlands, later writers called them both "Picts." The wild, unsettled Picts later disappeared from Scotland. Where? — historians do not know. But Scottish history tells!
   But first, to summarize the story of the half-Jewish kings who descended from the Cruithnians and the Hebrew Milesian women.


   The complete king list — and an accurate chronology of all the kings of the Cruithne — has come down to us in the "Pictish Chronicle." The record begins with the first settlement of the Agathyrsi in 1040. That is the year they were planted in Northwest Europe by Odin of Denmark, who led them out of their ancient homeland in Thrace.
   The "Pictish Chronicle" begins with the name of Cruithne and seven sons, who divided the Scottish realm between them. The entire period from the first migration in 1040 to the death of Cruithne and his sons was 100 years. Thereafter the royal line was inherited from the mother's side, not the father's, in accordance with the original agreement with the Milesians.
   The following chart is taken from the "Pictish Chronicle."
King's Names Lengths of Reign Dates

Cruidne (or Cruithne), 100 1040- 940
son of Cinge (or Kinne),
father of the Agathyrsi
dwelling in Scotland.

The seven sons of Cruithne:

Circui 60

Fidaich 40

Forteim 70

Floclaid 30

Got 12

Ce, that is, Cecircum 15

Fibaid 24
   The entire period of Cruithne and his seven sons is contained in the 100 years assigned to Cruithne. None of the sons' reigns can be dated. The kingship after 940 was passed on to the following:
Gedeolgudach 80 940-860

Denbacan 100 860-760

Finnechta (Olfinecta) 60 760-700

Guididgaedbrecach 50 700-650

Gestgurtich 40 650-610

Wurgest 30 610-580

Brudebout 48 580-532
   "From Brudebout descended 30 kings of the name of Brude, who reigned during 150 years in Ireland and in Albany," records the Chronicle. Albany was the seat of authority in Scotland. The following names indicate that the realm was divided into numerous principalities — probably 15 — over each of which two generations of kinglets reigned.
Thirty kings by name of Brude 150 532-382

Brude Gest Brude Uleo

Brude Urgest Brude Gant

Brude Point Brude Urgant

Brude Urpoint Brude Gnith

Brude Leo Brude Urgnith

Brude Feth Brude Gart

Brude Urfeichir Brude Urgart

Brude Cal Brude Clnd

Brude Urcal Brude Urclnd

Brude Cint Brude Uip

Brude Urcint Brude Uruip

Brude Feth Brude Grith

Brude Urfeth Brude Urgrith

Brude Ru Brude Muin

Brude Ero Brude Urmuin

Gilgidi 101 382-281

Tharan 100 281-181

Morleo 15 181-166

Deocilunan 40 166-126

Cimoiod, son of Arcois 7 126-119

Deord 50 119- 69

Bliciblitherth 5 69- 64

Dectoteric, brother of Diu 40 64- 24

Usconbuts 30 24 B.C.- 7 A.D.

Carvorst 40 7- 47

Deoartavois 20 47- 67

Uist 50 67-117

Ru 100 117-217

Gartnaithboc 4 217-221

Vere 9 221-230

Breth, son of Buthut 7 230-237

Vipoignamet 30 237-267

Canutulachma 4 267-271

Wradech Vechla 2 271-273

Garnaichdi Uber 60 273-333

Talore, son of Achivir — 75 333-408
(Nectanus, a contemporary
Pictish king was slain in

Drust, son of Erp or Irb 45 408-453
   Though the "Pictish Chronicle" continues the history of the Cruithne without interruption, it is important that the list be stopped here to discover who Drust, the son of Erp, was.


   Erp is the Pictish name for the Scottish Erc. Who was this Erc?
   Late Scottish historians confused this Erp or Erc with Erc the father of Fearghus. Fearghus mac Erc reigned 513-529. This was about a century after Drust mac Erp (or Erc). The two Ercs are not the same person. This is clearly proved by all early Scottish historians. "In two particulars at least, none of the early writers have disagreed: that in the year 503 an invasion of Caledonia took place under the leadership of Fergus mac Erc, and that he and his followers had come to stay" ("Controversial Issues in Scottish History", Gregg, page 35).
   Then who was the other Erc whose son, a century earlier, returned to rule over the Picts? The answer is found in the early history of the Scots who migrated from Scythia in the year 331-330.
   In 331 Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian realm. Many nations who had been held in virtual slavery gained their freedom. One of these people was the House of Israel. Israel was invaded in 721 by Shalmaneser of Assyria. After a three-year siege her people were taken into captivity. Ezekiel, over a century later was given a vision in which he saw that the House of Israel would not be released from their enslavement until 390 years had elapsed from the time of the siege of Samaria (Ezekiel 4:3-5). It was precisely 390 years from 721, when the siege against Samaria began, to 331, the date of the final overthrow of Persia and the deliverance out of captivity of the Hebrews. Some of them immediately commenced a migration to the land settled long before by their brethren. In the year 331-330 they journeyed out of Scythia to Scotland — the word Scotland originally meant the land of the Scyths. In Scotland they sent to Ireland for a Scythian-Mileslan prince, of the line of Mileadh, to rule over them. A prince was dispatched, together with a small army. His name was Fergus, the son of Ferquhard. It was his family from which Erp or Erc, the father of Drust, king of the "Picts,'' sprang. Before returning to complete the line of "Pictish" kings, we shall present a summary of the earliest kings to rule over the Scots in Scotland. (It should be remembered that Scotland and Pictland were but two of several early divisions of that land now known as Scotland.)
   This material is taken from Boethus and Buchanan. The correct outline is that preserved in Anderson's "Royal Genealogies". Buchanan mistakenly shortens the total of the dynasty 16 years. But Roman history confirms the longer form preserved by Anderson on page 753.
First Kings of the Lengths of Reign Dates

1. Fergus 25 330-305
He died in shipwreck off
the coast of Ireland,
where he went to quell
some commotions.

2. Feritharis 15 305-290
Brother of Fergus succeeds,
since Fergus' sons are too

3. Mainus 29 290-261
Fergus' younger son chosen
king, the older, Ferlegus,
being condemned for
conspiring in his uncle's

4. Dornadilla 28 261-233
A son of Mainus

5. Nothatus 20 233-213
Dornadilla's brother; his
own son too young to succeed
to the throne. A very
cruel and despotic ruler,
he was slain.

6. Reuther 26 213-187
Dornadilla's son. Dowal,
the murderer of Nothatus,
exercised great influence
over the still young Reuther.

7. Reutha 17 187-170
Son of Nothatus, cousin
of Reuther. Reuther's
brother rules for his
nephew, who is only ten
years old. Reutha
resigned the government
in favour of Thereus his

8. Thereus 12 170-158
Reuther's son. A cruel
and unwise tyrant, driven
into exile in his twelfth
year, Conan elected viceroy.

9. Josina 24 158-134
Thereus' brother. He
greatly honored physicians,
as he had been educated
among them.

10. Finnan 30 134-104
Josina's son. Established
that kings should not
decide on great matters
without authority of the
great council. Ne was
devoted to Druidical

11. Durstus 9 104- 95
Finnan's son. A vile and
debauched ruler. Pretending
to reform his life, he
invited the nobles and had
them slain. He was slain
in the ensuing battle.

12. Evenus 19 95- 76
Paternal cousin to Durstus.
Exacted oath of
allegiance from his subjects.

13. Gillus 3 76- 73
A crafty tyrant, slain by
Cadwal, his viceroy, in

14. Evenus II 17 73- 56
Son of Doval; grandson
of Josina.

15. Ederus 48 56- 8
Son of Dochamus, Durstus'

16. Evenus III 7 8- 1
A wicked and licentious
king; the son of Ederus.
He was put in prison by
the nobles and there
murdered by a fellow

17. Metellanus 29 "1 B.C."- 29 "A.D."
Son of Ederus' brother.

18. Caractacus 20 29- 49
Son of Cadallanus and of
Eropeia, Metellanus' sister.

19. Corbred I 18 49- 67
Caractacus' brother.

20. Dardanus 4 67- 71
Metellanus' nephew. A
cruel and licentious ruler,
he was captured in battle
and beheaded.

21. Corbred II. 35 71-106
Corbred's son. After many
battles with the Romans,
he died at peace.

22. Luctacus 3 106-109
A licentious prince, son
of Corbred II. He was
slain by his nobles.

23. Mogaldus (Mogallus) 36 109-145
Grandson of Galdus and
maternal nephew of
Lactacus, son of the
sister of Corbred II.
Started his reign well
but ended it in the ways
of his predecessor. Was
slain by the nobles.

24. Conarus 14 145-159
Mogaldus' son. He was a
partner in the conspiracy
against his father. He
himself was a lecherous
tyrant, was put in
prison after only 2 years.
Argadus became governor;
Conarus was finally slain
in prison in 159.

25. Ethodius 33 159-192
Mogaldus' sister's son.
He was murdered for
personal reasons by an
Irish harper.

26. Satrael 4 192-196
Ethodlus' brother, the son
was not yet mature enough.
This man murdered the
nobles and friends of
Ethodius, so he could do
away with the sons, in
order to keep the reign
in his family. Was finally
strangled by his own

27. Donald I. 21 196-217
Another brother of
Ethodius. The first
"Christian king" of
Scotland. First to coin
gold and silver money in
the land.

28. Ethodius II. 21 217-238
Son of Ethodius, an
intellectually weak and
base-minded man. Directed
by his nobles, slain by own

29. Athirco 12 238-250
Son of Ethodius. Began
his reign decently, but
degenerated and committed
suicide when pursued by
his nobles. Athirco's
brother, Dorus, flees
from the noble Nathalocus
with the three sons of

30. Nathalocau 12 250-262
A son of Athirco's brother,
he usurped the kingdom; was
a cruel tyrant and was slain
by the nobles.

31. Findochus 11 262-273
A son of Athirco. A
good ruler, he was slain
by his own brother at the
instigation of Donald the

32. Donald II. 1 273-274
Findochus' brother. In
battle Donald is wounded
and dies shortly after.

33. Donald III 12 274-286
Donald the Islander
usurped the kingship
without any right to it,
and ruled very cruelly.
He was finally slain by

34. Crathilinthus 24 286-310
The son of Findochus, who
was hidden for years.
After a long series of
battles with the wild
Picts, and after
purging the land of
the idolatrous superstition
of the Druids and
enforcing Christianity, he died.

35. Fincormach 47 310-357
Crathilinthus' cousin.
A just ruler.

36. Romachus 3 357-360
Son of oldest brother of
Crathilinthus. Obtained
the kingdom by force from
the two sons of two other
brothers of Crathilinthus.
Defeated incursions of the
wild Picts. His murder
ended his evil reign.

37. Angusianus 1 360-361
Son of a brother of
Crathilinthus. Angusianus
was slain in battle with the
Picts' king Nectanus.

38. Fethelmachus 3 361-364
Son of the third brother
of Crathilinthus, Devastating
the forces of the Picts in
battle, they sent assassins
who murdered the king.

39. Eugenius I (Evenus) 12 364-376
   Fincormach's son. He was killed in battle against the Romans and their Pictish allies. The Scottish kingdom was obliterated. The dead king's brother, with his son Erc, and his grandson, fled to Denmark where he was received by Sivaldus III. The Scottish population scattered throughout Scandanavia.
   The Romans soon turned on the Cruithne — who were still dwelling in Pictland along with the wild Picts. The Cruithne were miserably oppressed. After three decades they came to an agreement with the Scots and promised to restore the Scots to the throne if they would deliver them from oppression. The son of Erc or Erp returned in 408 at the head of a Scottish army, delivered the Cruithne and restored the throne. This son of Erc or Erp was not Ferghus, as later traditions assumed, but Drust, who became the new king of the Cruithne or Picts. Drust was famous in poetry for having fought 100 battles and lived 100 years. As he ended his reign in 453, he was born 353. He was therefore only 23 years old at the time of the flight of his grandfather and father.
   Before continuing the remarkable history of the wild Picts which culminated in 503 in Scotland, we should continue with the line of Scottish kings who now sat on the throne over the Cruithne (or the Agathyrsi Picts).


Kings of the Cruithne Lengths of Reign Dates

(Drust, son of Erp or Erc 45 408-453)

Talore, son of Aniel 4 453-457

Necton Morbet, son of Erp 25 457-482

Drest Gurthinmoth 30 482-512

Galanau Etelich 12 512-524

Dadrest 1 524-525

Drest, son of Gyrom 1 525-526

Drest, son of Udrost, reigned 5 526-531
jointly with Drest, son of Gyrom

Drest, son of Gyrom, 5 531-536
continues to reign alone

Gartnach, son of Gyrom 7 536-543

Cealtraim, son of Gyrom 1 543-544

Talorg, son of Muircholaich 11 544-555

Drest, son of Munait 1 555-556

Galam, with Aleth 1 556-557

Galam, with Brideo 1 557-558

Bride, son of Mailcon 30 558-588

Gartnaich, son of Domelch 11 588-599

Nectan 20 599-619

Cineoch, son of Luthrn 19 619-638

Garnard, son of Wid 4 638-642

Bridei, son of Wid 5 642-647

Talore, brother of the two 12 647-659
former kings

Talorcan, son of Enfret 4 659-663

Gartnait, son of Donnel 6 663-669

Drest, brother of Gartnait 7 669-676

Bridei, son of Bill 21 676-697

Taran, son of Entisidich 4 697-701

Bredei, son of Derili 11 701-712

Necton, or Naitan, son of Derili 15 712-727

Drest and Alpin reigned together 5 727-732

Onnust, or Oengus, son of Urgust, 31 732-763
or Fergus

Bredei, son of Uiurgust 2 763-765

Kinoid, or Kinoth son of Wirdech 12 765-777

Elpin, or Alpin son of Wroid 3 777-780

Drest, or Durst son of Talorgan 4 780-784

Talargan, son of Onnust 2 784-786

Canaul, son of Tarla 5 786-791

Castantin, or Constantine, son 30 791-821
of Urguist, or Fergus

Unnust, or Hungus, son of Urguist 12 821-833

Drest, son of Constantine, and 3 833-836
Taloran, son of Utholl, reigned

Uwen, or Eogan, son of 3 836-839

Wrad, son of Bargoit 3 839-842

Bred Brude 3 842-845

Keneth MacAlpin, first king 16 843-859
of all Scotland, united line
of Cruithne (or "Picts")
with the Milesian Scottish
line of Ferghus mac Erc.
   This completes the history of the Picts who descended from the intermarriage of the Cruithne and the Judaic Milesian royal house. From the reign of Kenneth MacAlpin the history of the throne of David has already been presented in volume I.
   But what befell those wild, tribal Picts who gave their name to the Cruithne — and who painted themselves? Remnants of them continued to be referred to as late as the seventeenth century. Most of the population, however, suddenly disappeared in 503 upon the coming of the Milesian Scots out of Ireland under the leadership of Fearghus mac Erc.
   Those wild Picts were the people who left the many strange and intriguing remains in the Northern Isles of Britain — the mounds, the flint knives, the stonehewn tombs, the carvings. The next chapter explains the link between Scotland and the New World.

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Publication Date: 1969
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