Compendium of World History - Volume 2
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Compendium of World History - Volume 2

Chapter XI:


   One thousand years of Persian history is missing from today's history textbooks. Most writers begin their account of Persia about the time of Cyrus the Great. A few archaeological notes usually precede the story. But the real history of Persia (or Iran) for a thousand years before Cyrus has been deliberately removed from history books.


   Persia, the modern Iran, like most other nations, has preserved its history from early times. Traditions and legends have no doubt been added along the way. But the main framework and sequence of events is so clearly preserved that no doubt about the facts need exist.
   Of course there is a reason why early Persian history is rejected. It includes several Biblical heroes! That alone, in the eyes of modern interpreters of history, is enough to condemn any record.
   Early Persian history has been preserved not only by Persian and Arabic writers, but in a few rare translations into modern languages. Perhaps the most complete is Shea's "Early Kings of Persia." A less complete account may be recovered from D'Herbelot's "Bibliotheque Orientale." More complete is the analysis in "Universal History," Vol. V.
   Before recounting in brief the history of Persia, it would be well to compare, below, the table of rulers from Mirkhond, the Persian historian, with that of other oriental authors. One is immediately aware of figures that at first glance seem preposterous. But each one has significant meaning. They are not all lengths of reign — several are based on time lapses since the beginning of important eras. Without these long figures, it would not be possible to restore Persian history.
Table of Persian Rulers From Mirkhond From Other
Oriental Authors

Dynasty or Pishdadians or

1. Kajomaras or Cajoumaras 40 560

2. Siamek, a son, slain after — —
very brief reign.

Kajomaras resumes kingdom — 30

An interregnum. — 200

3. Hushang 50 50

4. Tamurash, said to be 30 —
grandson of Hushang

5. Giemshid or Giamschid, 30 30
descendant of Kajomaras

6. Dahak or Zahak (Zoak), — 1000
an Arab

7. Aphridun, or Feridoun, son — 120
of Giemshid

8. Manugjahr or Manougeher 120 500
surnamed Phirouz; son of
Irege, son of Feridoun

9. Nodar or Nudar, a son 7 7

10. Apherasiab or Afrasiab, 12 12
descendant of Tur, the
son of Feridoun

11. Zaab, Zab, Zoub, or — 30
Bazab, heir of the house
of Kajomaras

12. Gustasp, or Kischtasp, — 30 or 20
son of Zaab

Dynasty of Kaianites

1. Kaikobad 100 120

2. Kaikaus 150 150

3. Kaikhosru or Kaihosru 60 60

4. Lohrasp or Lohorasb 120 120

5. Gushtasp, Gustasp or 120 120
Kishtasp, son of Lohrasp

6 Ardshir, surnamed Bahaman, 112 112
grandson of Gustasp

7. Queen Homai 32 32

8. Darab I (Persian spelling 4 14
of Darius)

9. Darab II 14 —

After him came Iscander Ben
Filoukous — Alexander the
son of Philip.
   The time element at the close of this list is clear. The days of Alexander the Great have been reached. Darab II is Persian king Darius III Codomannus. He was slain in 330, after Alexander overthrew his empire. But most of the preceding names in the table of kings are not those found in history books. The answer is that Persia's last king was not a direct descendant of the great Persian kings of history. This table of Persian royal names is an account of another branch of royalty — the family of Darius Codomannus.
   Once we know the date of Darab II — his reign ends in 330 — it is possible to restore the whole list, if we just take the figures exactly as they are. The following chart is the restoration of the Dynasty of the Kaianites — combining both Mirkhond and other oriental writers.


The Second Race, or Lengths of Time Dates
Dynasty of the Kaianites

l. Kaikobad 100 1042-942
He reigned 20 years with (or 120) (1062-942)
a predecessor.

2. Kaikaus, grandson of 150 942-792
The 150 years represent the
duration of time since the
death of his grandfather.

3. Kaikhosru, grandson of 60 792-732
He died without male heir.

4. Lohorasp, a near relative 120 732-612
of Kaikhosru
Note that the year of his
death is 612 — the date of
the fall of Nineveh.
Lohorasp was an ally of
Assyria. He joined with
the Assyrians in their
conquest of the Jews in
Palestine in the days of
king Manasseh. He perished
in 612 in a revolt which
carried Persia from the
Assyrian camp to that of
the Medes and Babylonians.

5. Gustasp, called Hystaspes 120 612-492
in Greek literature.
Nearly 30 years after he
came to power in a revolt
against his father, Gustasp
was involved in a war with
the inhabitants of Turkestan
and Scythia. This is the
struggle which occurred in
584 between Media and Scythia
(see Vol. I of the Compendium).
The long reigns assigned to
this family may reflect the
practice of choosing the
youngest heir. In several
instances a grandson is the
successor. Or the figures
may represent reckoning by
eras and may not distinguish
the separate reigns of father
and son, who may also have
had the same throne names.

6. Ardshir Bahaman, surnamed 112 492-380
Dirazdest — the long-
handed. He is the
Artaxerxes Longimanus
of history. Here again
the assigned length extends
beyond the life of the king,
and is in fact the practice
of reckoning in eras.

7. Queen Homai daughter of 32 380-348
Ardshir according to most
Persian authors.
8. Darab I, her son, say the 4 348-344
eastern traditions, by her (or 14) (358-344)
own father. The date 358
is that of Artaxerxes III
Ochus of history texts.

9. Darab II, slain in 330 14 344-330


   Persian historians commonly refer to the early judges and kings of their land as the "first race" and the "second race." The second has just been restored. The first is now possible to date. Its last king or Judge, Gustasp, ended his reign in 1042, at which time he was succeeded by Kaikobad of the "second race." With 1042 as ending date, the reign of Kajomaras would begin in 1741. Observe how all these figures fit as pieces of a puzzle.

The First Race of Lengths of Time Dates
Persian Rulers

1. Kajomaras, a descendant 40 1741-1701
of Aram (560) (2261-1701)
What occurred in 2261? What
era does this mark? It is
108 years after the flood.
Now check Italian history.
There we notice that 2261 is
the date when Noah began to
send out colonies to inhabit
new areas of the world. This
separation of the land to
various families and races
is what Nimrod rebelled
against. So Persian history
confirms what has already
been established from ancient
Italian records preserved
among the Etruscans.
   Note that 1741 marks the end of the sole reign of Senwosre III or Sesostris, the great Egyptian conqueror of the Near East — including Persia.
2. Siamek
Shortly after ascending the
throne he was slain (1701).

Kajomaras returns to power 30 1701-1671
   After Kajomaras no supreme rulers in Persia are recorded for a space of 200 years — 1671-1471. This period of Interregnum has an important bearing on the history of the Tatars. And also on Assyria (see Vol. I of Compendium).
3. Hushang, surnamed Pishdud 50 1471-142I
(meaning judge). Hushang
began the Dynasty of judge-
kings — the Pishdadians,
Who was this man? His
Persian name — Hushang —
would be Husham in Hebrew.
Is there in the Biblical
record a Husham living
about the time of Moses
and Joshua? Indeed there
is! Turn to the record in
Genesis 36:31 and 34: "And
these are the kings that
reigned in the land of Edom,
before there reigned any king
over the children of Israel
   of Temani reigned ...." This
Husham or Hushang, famous
in the Biblical record, is
the Temanite king who ruled
over the children of Esau or
Edom. His native land was in
Persia — proving how early
certain of the children of
Esau were moving out of the
land of Edom by the Red Sea
into the land of Persia and
Turkestan, Husham was king
over the widely scattered
tribes of Edom. He was the
great ruler who ordered Moses
not to cross his territory in
the year 1448-1447.
But Husham's is not the
only name that will appear
in Persian history from this
list in Genesis 36.

4. Tahmurash 30 1421-1391

5. Giemshid 30 1391-1361

6. Dahak, a famous man out of
Arabia who came to power in
the last years of Giemshid.
He drove the latter into
exile, hunted him down when
he discovered Giemshid had
a son, and finally slew him.
What do the 1000 years represent?
There is only one possible
explanation. He came to the
Persian throne 1000 years
after the Flood — 2369-1369.
In 1369 he drove Giemshid
from the throne. The time
of Dahak's power in Persia is
therefore 8 years — 1369-
1361. In 1361 a son of
Giemshid, now three years old,
came to the throne with the
death of Dahak.

7. Alphidun 120 1361-1241
The new king lived 123 years.
He married the daughter of
Dahak. He divided his realm
between his sons. To Tur he
gave Turkestan. To Irege,
son of a Persian woman,
the realm of Persia was
assigned. From Tur the
Temanite inhabitants of
Turkestan took the name
Turan or Turk. In the family
quarrels which followed, all
the sons of Alphidun were
slain, and the kingship
passed to Manougeher, son
of Irege.

8. Manougeher, surnamed Phirouz 120 1241-1121
From him the people of Iran
called Persians. Phirouz
is the Perses of Greek tradition
who lived at the time
of the war with Troy!
   But what of the figure
500? Answer: Manougeher
came to power in 1241,
exactly 500 years after
Kajomaras came to the
royal estate — 1741-1241.

9. Nodar 7 1121-1114

10. Apherasiab 12 1114-1102
He was a great Khan of
Turkestan, a descendant of
Tur, and joined Persia with
Tartary. Constant rebellion
led at length to the establishment
of a descendant of Kajomaras
on the Persian throne.

11. Zaab or Bazab 30 1102-1072
Who was this Zaab? Turn to
Genesis 36:39. Hadar, king
of Edom, married "Mehetabel,
the daughter of Matred, the
daughter of Me-zahab" ("Jewish
Publ. Soc."). (Mezahab is
the KJV spelling.) Bazab is
but an altered and shortened
spelling of the Hebrew
Me-zahab (the letters "b"
and "m" being easily
interchangeable in Indo
European tongues — cf.
Emher for Eber in Irish).
Hadar is the last king in Edom
who began to reign before Saul.
The chronology of Persia is
in perfect harmony with the
Biblical account.
   Here again is proof that
the Bible is the foundation of
knowledge. Without the list
of rulers of Edom in Genesis 36,
it would not be possible to
understand fully who the early
rulers of Persia were.

12. Gustasp or Kischtasp 30 1072-1042
The 20 years of certain (or 20) (1062-1042)
oriental writers is the
duration of the joint reign
with Kaikobad. Persian
historians declare that
Kishtasp was the son of a
Jewess of the tribe of
Benjamin. This was the
very time of the dominance
of Benjamin in Israel — and
especially the family of Kish,
the father of Saul. The reign
of Gustasp was put to an end
by struggles with Apherasiab
of Turkestan. In this time
of national struggle, an heir
of the line of Nodar and Zaab
established Persian independence
from the Turks and founded the
Dynasty of the Kaianites or
the "second race" of Persian
   And that restores the amazing 1000 years of missing Persian history.


   In the vast stretches north of Persia live a medley of peoples. Mongols, Tatars, Turks, Turkomen, and Persians, among many others. The history of this area is intimately connected with ancient Persia. The nomadic tribes inhabiting the region have not preserved any chronological framework of their past history, but their line of great Khans has sufficient parallels that the main events of Turkestan or Eastern Scythia may be ascertained.
   The Bible labels this vast area the land of Gog (see Ezekiel 38). Gog was a descendant of Japheth. The western half of these vast reaches belongs today to the Soviet Union. The eastern part is Mongolia and a part of China (Sinkiang Province). The whole area is called Turkestan by geographers.
   The word Turk has in the Turkic or Mongolian languages the meaning of "strong warrior." The Mongoloid Turkic people trace their ancestry back to Turk, the adopted son of Japheth. (The Mongoloid Turks are to be distinguished from the Caucasian Osmanli Turks of modern Turkey — the sons of Teman who acquired the name Turk from living in that geographic area.) The son of Turk in Tatar history was Taunak Khan. (Khan means ruler.) He was, at least in part, an earlier contemporary of Kajomaras of Persia. Taunak is affirmed to have lived 240 years, according to Abu'l Ghazi Bahadur Khan's "Genealogical History of the Tatars," published in 1730 in London. This is well within the ages listed in Genesis for the patriarchs immediately after the Flood.
   Taunak was succeeded in order by Jelza Khan, Dibbakui Khan and Kajuk Khan — the latter two having long reigns. The son of Kajuk was Alanza Khan or Ilingeh Khan. His was a period of growing prosperity and luxury. He was the father of Tatar Khan, from whom the Tatars trace their name, and of Mogul Khan, from whom the Moguls or Mongols trace their name.
   The son of Mogul Khan was Kara Khan. In his day there was a rapid spread of idolatry, declare the Mohammedan Tatar historians. Hushang of Persia was ruler in Persia.


   In the days of Kara Khan, after the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt, his son Oguz or Ogus Khan revolted against the idolatry of his father (see the "Universal History", Vol. XX). Later, Ogus, after 72 years of war, created a vast Mongol Empire. He subjected Cathay (part of China), Tashkent, Samarkand and all Turkestan, Kashmir, part of Armenia and Iran. Iran at this time was without unified leadership during the reign of Giemshid (1391-1361). Oguz Khan carried his conquests (Diodorus of Sicily II, 43) to Egypt. Interestingly, this is the time of the Hyksos rule in Egypt. And one of the Hyksos rulers had the name of Khayan or Khan. This king could be none other than Oguz Khan. His 116 year reign from Tatar history is therefore 1392-1276.
   Ogus Khan was succeeded by Kiun Khan (1276-1206). His name means the "sun". The history of Persia indicated that hereafter the kings of Persia dominated the accessible steppes of Turkestan. This would be the time of Alphidun, who set his son Tur over Turkestan. He was followed by Apherasiab. In order there followed Juldus Khan, Mengli Khan, Tengis Khan and Il Khan. In the days of Il Khan (in the 600's B.C.) the Tatars warred against the Mongols and nearly obliterated them. Il had a son Kajan who survived the struggle. For 400 years the Mongols disappear from the pages of Tatar history into the vastnesses of the mountains of Asia.
   Now to return to the time of Alanza Khan and his son Tatar Khan. The Tatars in the Soviet Union trace their early Khans from Tatar the brother of Mogul. From Tatar descended Buka, Jalanzak and Ettala Khan. Ettala's son Attaisis Khan fought bloody wars — in the days of Ogus Khan of the Mongols. He was followed by Orda, Baydu and Siuntz Khan. The latter in a grand alliance destroyed the Mongol power.
   After this great victory the Tatars split up under petty rulers and have left us but few names of their rulers. Based on the number of generations this victory over the Mongols occurred in the 600's.
   After multiplying in the mountains bordering on Mongolia, the Moguls finally rose to power in the late 200's. In another fifty years they challenged the Tatars, conquered them and became the masters of much of eastern Scythia.
   The Tatars and Mongols - descendants of Turk whom Japheth adopted as his son - preserved for posterity the names of over 20 Khans (see Vol. XX of "Universal History") who ruled Mongolia and adjacent territory until the twelfth century of the present era, Then it was that the Mongols burst forth on the world, ravaged Asia and plunged with terrible swiftness west into the heart of Europe under Jenghis Khan.


   The principal source of Armenian history is that of Moses Khoren, a celebrated writer of the fifth century. In part his material is derived from the books of Mar-Abas Catina, a learned Aramean of the second century B.C. Modern archaeology provides additional information beginning with the period of the late Assyrian Empire.
   Armenian history has been treated in much the same manner as Persian history. Prior to the Assyrian period all is rejected without being examined to see if it corresponds with the parallel accounts of other nations.
   Armenian history begins with the account of Haik or Haig, the son of Togarmah, the son of Gomer. What's wrong with Biblical characters suddenly appearing on the scene shortly after the Flood? Nothing — unless one doesn't want to acknowledge the plain facts of the Bible and history. Historians acknowledge the land about Armenia, as late as the days of Shalmaneser the Great, was known as the land of Togarmah. of course, that is from archaeology!
   Armenians descend from Aram, son of Shem (see Josephus). Intermarriage between Togarmah's family and Aram's has undoubtedly given rise to the unique character of the Armenians.
   The following tables, prepared by Michael Chamich and St. Martin, are taken from the "Collection des Historiens Anciens et Modernes de l'Armenie" by Victor Langlois, Paris, 1880, vol. II, pp. 385-386.


Kamer, Gomer, 37 2178-2141 Armais 40 1816-1776

son of Japheth

Togarmah 198 2141-1943 Amassia 32 1776-1744

Haik 81 1943-1862 Gegham 50 1744-1694

Armenak 46 1862-1816 Harma 31 1694-1663
   Armenak, declares Issaverdenz, "with a large body of his people, advanced a few days journey to the northeast," and colonized a new area of the Armenian plateau. (Page 56 of "Armenia and the Armenians," Vol. I.)
   The family of Aram paralleled the family of Togarmah, rather than succeeding it as most Armenian historians claim.
  Aram, son of          58        2108-2050   Shem   
   Aram "was the first to raise the Armenian name to any degree of renown." One of his "followers" was Mishag or Mishak. Certainly here we have the family of Aram and his son Mash or Meshech of the Bible.
  Ara the Handsome      26        2050-2024   
   Semiramis, Queen of Assyria, offered to marry Ara. He refused. And in an ensuing battle between the Assyrians and Armenians, Ara perished. Semiramis raised Garthos to the throne in his father's stead. Sometimes his name is spelled Kardos.
   During his day Semiramis and Ninyas struggled for the throne in Assyria. She fled to the Armenian king. Out of gratitude for having been placed on the throne, he raised an army and marched with Semiramis against Ninyas Zames. Both Kardos and Semiramis were slain and Ninyas came to the throne in 2006 in Assyria.
Kardos, called 18 2024-2006
Ara Araian

Anoushavan 63 2006-1943
Anoushavan had no heir to the throne; submits to Assyria as do his successors; he is succeeded by Haik in 1943.
Paret 50 1663-1613 Geghak 30 1228-1198

Arbak 44 1613-1569 Horo 3 1198-1195

Zavan 37 1569-1532 Zarmair, 12 1195-1183
slain by Achilles

Pharnas I 53 1532-1479 Interregnum 2 1183-1181

Sour 45 1479-1434 Shavarsh II 43 1181-1138

Havanak 30 1434-1404 Perch I 35 1138-1103

Vashtak 22 1404-1382 Arboun 27 1103-1076

Haikak I 18 1382-1364 Perch II 40 1076-1036

Ampak I 14 1364-1350 Bazouk 50 1036- 986

Arnak 17 1350-1333 Hoy 44 986- 942

Shavarsh I 6 1333-1327 Houssak 31 942- 911

Norair 24 1327-1303 Ampak II 27 911- 884

Vestam 13 1303-1290 Kaipak 45 884- 839

Kar 4 1290-1286 Pharnouas I 33 839- 806

Gorak 18 1286-1268 Pharnas II 40 806- 766

Hrant I 25 1268-1243 Skaiordi 17 766- 749

Endzak 15 1243-1228

Parouyr, 48 749- 701 Haikak II 36 606- 570
frees Armenia from Assyria
Erouand I 4 570- 566
Hratchia 22 701- 679
Tigran I 45 566- 521
Pharnouas, 13 679- 666
the second Vahagn 25 521- 496

Pachouych 35 666- 631 Aravan 20 496- 476

Kornak 8 631- 623 Nerseh 35 476- 441

Phavos 17 623- 606 Zarah 46 441- 395

Armog 9 395- 386 Neoptolemus 2 323- 321

Bagam 14 386- 372 Hrant II, or 4 321- 317

Van 20 372- 352
Ardoates 33 317- 284
Vahe 23 352- 329
(20) (352-332) Hrant II, or 45 284- 239
died in war with Alexander Orontes
the Great

Artavazanes 50 239-189
Mihram 6 329- 323
a Persian appointed by Artaxias 30 189-159
Artavazd 10 159-149
   Kurkjian's "History of Armenia" may be consulted for succeeding periods.
   Armenian history commences with a settlement of colonists in 2247, seven years after the episode at Babel. These colonists were subject to the rulers in Babylonia for 139 years. They gained their independence in 2108. This date is traditionally assigned to Haik, but rightfully belongs to Aram. Armenian history clearly places the family of Aram contemporary with Semiramis and Ninyas. Since Togarmah settled Armenia earlier than Aram, the line of Aram was inserted after the line of Gomer. It should have been made parallel. The family of Gomer continued down to the time of Paret in 1663. Note that the period assigned to Gomer and Togarmah in Armenian history corresponds with Italian and Spanish history. The white branch of the family was settling in Europe, while the Oriental branch migrated eastward.
   It appears that Ul, the son of Aram who settled Armenia, is Ara — the "r" replacing the "l".

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Publication Date: 1969
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