Compendium of World History - Volume 2
QR Code
Compendium of World History - Volume 2

Chapter XIV:


   Arabia may be blanketed by arid plateaus and inhospitable deserts. But Arabia is also a vast land inhabited by many different tribes. Few have ever compared it with Europe. Many of the great nations of Europe would be lost in Arabia's solitudes.
   Arabia also has its past history — one which joins together and confirms the accounts of neighboring nations. Arabia borders — by land and sea — on Mesopotamia and Persia, on Syria and Palestine and on Egypt and Ethiopia. Whatever happened in the heartland of the ancient world inevitably affected the trade routes of Arabia.


   The most famous name in Arabian history is that of Ishmael. Ishmael, Abram and Hagar's son, is the progenitor of most of the Arab world. Then why are not the people called Ishmaelites today? Why do we not call the peninsula of Arabia the peninsula of Ishmael? How did Ishmaelites acquire the designation Arab?
   Answer: the land was already known as Arabia before Ishmael was born!
   The word Arab is derived from the Hebrew root "arab." It means evening, dusk, and also sterile (desert). The vast arid land of Arabia lay immediately to the west and south of Babylonia from whence human beings spread after Babel. It was only natural that they should call the land which lay to the west Arabia. As they migrated in Arabia they called the land to the south Yemen. Yemen means right and south (cf. the Biblical Ben-jamin) — because in the Middle East people face east (not north) in defining directions.
   Any who dwelt in this vast peninsula came to be known as Arabs. In fact, one of the earliest heroes in Arabia came to be known simply as Yarab — the Arabian. His real name was Jerah, the son of Joktan. And with him we open the history of Arabia.
   A simple account of Arabian history may be found in "Universal History," Vol. XVIII. It is immediately noticed that Arabian emphasis is on heroes, not time. Events can be dated only to contemporary generations. Only Yemen has an accurate chronology. This weakness is still witnessed in the Islamic calendar. It is lunar, but not solar. It neglects the seasons and loses seven months in nineteen solar years.
   Arabian history opens up before the time of Ishmael, as one might readily expect. It begins with the life of Joktan, the son of Heber. The Arabs call Joktan by the name Kahtan. Joktan was the father of thirteen sons mentioned in the Bible, eleven of whom journeyed into Europe where their descendants mainly live today. Several of those sons early planted colonies along the trade routes of the world — just as have the children of Peleg, Joktan's brother, in the modern world. Among the sons who planted colonies along south Arabia were Hazarmaveth, Jerah and Hadoram (whom the Arabs call Jorham). Ophir also planted colonies in other areas of the world.
   In later history the sons of Hazarmaveth migrated out of Arabia, joined with the Elamites and journeyed into Europe after the fall of Persia. There they came to be known as Sarmatians.


   The children of Hadoram or Jorham founded Hejaz. There princes reigned until the time of Ishmael, who is said by Arabian historians to have married the daughter of Modad, a daughter of one of the princes of Jorham's family. The family of Ishmael afterward expelled the Jorhamites from Arabia. The names of the early princes of the Jorhamites have been preserved by Arab historians. Their account is summarized here:
1. Jorham, the brother of Yarab, founded Hejaz; he is Hadoram, the
brother of Jerah.

2. Abd Yalil, the son of Jorham.

3. Jorsham, the son of Abd Yalil.

4. Abdo'l Madan, the son of Jorsham.

5. Nogailah, the son of Abdo'l Madan. (Note the name Medan at nearly
the same time in Abraham's family.)

6. Abdo'l Masih, the son of Nogailah.

7. Modad, the son of Abdo'l Masih.

8. Amru, the son of Modad.

9. Al Hareth, brother of Amru. This name will appear again, though
much later, in the form of Aretas, the king
who sought to lay hands on the apostle Paul at Damascus.

10. Amru, the son of Al Hareth.

11. Basher, the brother of Amru.

12. Modad, the son of Amru, the son of Modad. It was his daughter whom
Ishmael married, according to Arabian
historians. His other wife his mother chose out of Egypt.

Thereafter the name of Kedar (Kidar in Arabic) appears.
   Kedar was the son of Ishmael by the daughter of Modad. After the conquest of the Jorhamites, the family of Kedar continued to rule over the Hejaz for nine generations until Adnan, the last one named. There follows a blank period of about 1200 years, after which the Ishmaelites reappear under another leader called Adnan in 122 B.C. One branch of his descendants later established themselves as the Sherifs of Mecca. King Hussein of Jordan is their direct descendant.


   In Arabia, at the southwest corner, is the modern Yemen — Yaman in Arabic. It means south. It is a land of many diverse tribes — many non-Ishmaelite. Yemen was founded by Kahtan — the Joktan of the Bible. Yemen anciently controlled the entrance to the Red Sea from the Indian Ocean. Hence its early importance to the Hebrew family. Hamza Ben-el-Hasan of Isfahan has preserved the history and chronology of Yemen to the time of Mohammed. The best summary of his work is found in "Geschichte der Araber vor Muhamed" by August Ruhle von Lilienstern, Berlin, 1836, pp. 103 ff and especially Tafel I.
Rulers of Yemen Length of Reign Dates

1. Kahtan or Joktan, first (His brother Peleg was
established his rule in born 2268)
Yemen, then went into
Europe where he was known
as Hister (meaning same
as original Hebrew

2. Yarab, son of Kahtan,
from whom the Kahtan Arabs
of the south derive their
origin. His Biblical
name is Jerah.

3. Yashab, son of Yarab.

4. Abd Shems, surnamed Saba,
son of Yashab. He led
successful expeditions
against enemies in the
peninsula. In 1978 he
expanded his power across
the Red Sea into Ethiopia, (See Ethiopian history
where he established for dates)
himself as the head of a
new Joktanite dynasty.
In Ethiopian history he
is known as Akbunas Saba.
Abd Shems had several sons,
among whom were Hamyar,
Amru and Cahlan. Cahlan
succeeded his father on the
throne in Ethiopia in 1923
under the name of Nakehte

5, Hamyar, son of Abd Shems, 150 1709-1559
began his reign, according
to Abulfeda, 129 years
after the death of Hud
(whom Arabs say is Eber).
Hamyar drove the remnant
of the Themudites or
Troglodytes out of Yemen.
These were later found by
Greek Geographers on the
African shore of the Red Sea.

6. Wayel, son of Hamyar,
succeeded to the kingdom.
Other writers mention
Cahlan — which implies a
division of land among the

7. Alsacsac, son of Wayel.

8. Yaafar, son of Alsacsac.

9. Dhu Rujash. At this point
it ought to be noted that the
number of generations over so
long a period corresponds
almost exactly to the Biblical
record from Abraham to David.
There were 14 generations in
the Bible in just under 1000
years. As in the Biblical
record the inheritance often
passed to a son born late in
life (as in the case of David,
the youngest son of Jesse).

10. Al Numan, son of Yaafar.

11. Ashman, son of Numan.

12. Shaddad, son of Ad, son of
Al Matata, son of Abd Shems.
He was a very powerful
prince in Arabic tradition
He lived during the time of
the great Hyksos expansion in
the Middle East. Arab
tradition claims he ruled
260 years.

13. Lokman, brother of Shaddad.

14. Dhu Sadad, brother of Lokman. -1150

15. Al Hareth, son of Dhu 125 1150-1025
Sadad. In his time Yemen
became immensely wealthy.
Reason? The Trojan war.
With trade shut off from
Scythia, it was inevitable
that there should be an
expansion of commerce along
the southern route.

16. Dhu'l Karnain Assaab.
(Joint reign with successor
who is assigned entire

17. Dhutl Manar Abrahah, son of 183 1025- 842

18. Africus, son of Dhu'l 164 842- 678
Manar Abrahah. His name
signifies the connection
between Egypt, Ethiopia
and South Arabia at this
time. He settled North
Africa with Berbers from
Palestine and Egypt.

19. Dhu'l Adhaar Amru, son of 25 678- 653
Africus, made foreign

20. Sharhabil, descendant of
Alsacsac. (Joint reign.)

21. Al Hodhad, son of Sharhabil. 75 653- 578

22. Balkis, son of Hodhad. In 20 578- 558
some Arabic sources his
name is confused with Belkis
— the Arabic name for the
Queen of Sheba.

23. Nasherol'neam, descendant 85 558- 473
of Sharhabil.

24. Shamer Yaraash, son of 37 473- 436
Nasher. He gave his name
to Samarkand in Central
Asia. At this time there
must have been extensive
migration of Edomites and
Joktanites out of Arabia
into Central Asia, around

25. Abu Malec, son of Shamer. 55 436- 381

26. Amran, son of Amer,
descendant of Cahlan, the
brother of Hamyar.

27. Amru, son of Amer (both
brothers reign jointly,
but the chronology is
reckoned after the reigns of
Abu Malec and Al Akran).

28. Al Akran, descendant of 53 381- 328
Abu Malec.

29. Dhu Habshan, son of 70 328- 258
Al Akran.

30. Tobba, younger brother 163 258- 95
of Al Akran.

31. Colaicarb, son of Tobba. 35 95- 60

32. Abu Carb Asaad (Tobba). 20 60- 40
He is mentioned in the
Koran. He revived religious
interest among the Arabians
and Hamyarites. He adorned
the Kaaba, the sacred stone
building at Mecca, and
introduced Judaism among
the Hamyarites, The Arab
historian Ibu Khaldun
reports that Abu Carb sent
large military expeditions
into Central Asia. Two of
these reached Tibet and
China, where they caused a
great blood bath. On the
way back many warriors of
the Hamyarite armies settled
in Tibet. Tribes using the
Hamyarite alphabet were still
found in that region in
modern times (Marquart,
"Osteurop"ische und
Ostasiatische Streifz?ge",
p. 84). Abu Carb was
murdered, possibly for
religious reasons.

33. Hassan ben Tobbai, son 70 40 B.C.- 31 A.D.
Abu Carb.

34. Amru Tobbai (Dhu Lawad), 63 31- 94
son of Hassan.

35. Abd Celal 74 94- 168

36. Tobba, grandson of Hassan. 78 168- 246

37. Al Haroth, son of Amru.
(Joint reign.) He was
king of Hamyarites who
embraced Judaism.

38. Morthed, son of Celal, also 41 246- 287
surnamed Dhu Lawad.

39. Waciaa, son of Morthed. 37 287- 324

40. Abrahah, son of Alsabah
(Joint reign).

41. Sabban (Joint reign).

42. Sabbash (Joint rule with 15 324- 339

43. Hassan, descendant of Amru 57 339- 396
(Joint rule with Sabban).

44. Dhu Shanater. He was 27 396- 423
finally dethroned for
unnatural lusts, having
abused several youths
of the noblest families.

45. Yusuf Dhu Nowas 20 423- 443

46. Dhu Jadan, the last of 60 443- 503
the Hamyaritic monarchs.
He sought to enforce Judaism
in opposition to Christianity.
The Ethiopians, with help of
Byzantium, defeated Dhu
Jadan. He perished in the
sea, fleeing from the
Ethiopians. Ethiopia
ruled Yemen for the next
72 years (503-575) until
the Persian conquest.

47. Arnat 20 503- 523

48. Abrahah 23 523- 546

49. Iecsoum (Yacsum) 17 546- 563

50. Masruk 12 563- 575

51. Seif Ebn Dhu Yazan, a 575
descendant of the old
royal family of Hamyar,
recovered the throne from
the Ethiopians with the
aid of the Persian Khosru
Anushirwan. Seif was,
however, slain by certain
Ethiopians whom he had
failed to expel. After
575 the Persians appointed
princes until the time of
Mohammedan conquest of Yemen.
   Arabian historians reckon 3000 years to the end of the Kingdom of Yemen. And it is indeed exactly 3000 years from the end of the Flood to the death of Mohammed in 632, when the government of Arabia passed to the Ishmaelite caliphs, the successors of Mohammed.


   To complete Volume II, we must recount the brief history of Arakan, in Burma, and the history of early India before 1649.
   The Arakanese, in Burma, have preserved a remarkable history going back to the Tower of Babel. The initial part of it was cited in the early history of Peru. A continuation of that chart is given below. It traces the migration of peoples out of Mesopotamia into the Ganges valley. For several centuries after the age of Horus (Maradzi II of Arakanese history) there are Hindu names ending in -sandra in the list of rulers. Abruptly the names change. There followed a migration of Southeast Asians out of India into the area of Arakan along the Burmese coast.
   During the time in India the early Hindu rulers utilized the nonaccession-year method of dating. That is, the last calendar year of a king (during which he died or was deposed) was also reckoned as the first calendar year of his successor. This same method was used in the nation Israel to the time of Jehu — in contrast to the accession-year system of Judah.
   Arakanese records fill in the missing years of Indian history to 1649. Properly restored from the palm-leaf records, their early rulers appear as follows:
Maradzi II (Horus) 33 2004-1971,

Marakeng Year 1 1971-1970
Year 32 1940-1939,
early Indian
year reckoning

Ngatshapo Year 1 1940-1939
(a usurper) Year 21 1920-1919

Dwaratsandra Year 1 1920-1919
Year 40 1881-1880

Tholatsandra Year 1 1881-1880
Year 33 1849-1848

Tsandathuriyatsandra Year 1 1849-1848
Year 37 1813-1812

Kalatsandra Year 1 1813-1812
Year 40 1774-1773

Titsandra Year 1 1774-1773
Year 31 1744-1743

Madhuthatsandra Year 1 1744-1743
Year 20 1725-1724

Dzeyatsandra Year 1 1725-1724
Year 40 1686-1685

Mokkhatsandra Year 1 1686-1685
Year 26 1661-1660

Gunnatsandra Year 1 1661-1660
Year 12 1650-1649

Three Usurpers in one 1650-1649,
calendar year. ending early
year reckoning
   At this point the names of kings ending in -sandra cease. The succeeding centuries of Indian history may be found restored in Volume I of the Compendium. The migration in 1649 of Mongoloid peoples out of India to Arakan in Burma was a consequence of the war with Assyria in 1649.

Previous      Chapter XIV      Next
Publication Date: 1969
Back To Top