How Greek History Was Corrupted It is not generally admitted. But Homer, the famous epic poet of Greece, was mad. His "Iliad" and "Odyssey" — recording the events surrounding the Greek struggles with Troy — were written while Homer was demented.
Homer was not merely an insane poet. He was also a mad historian. Through Homer Greek history was altered, with diabolical cleverness. Homer telescoped three Greek wars with Troy into one. Men and events five centuries apart are artificially joined together as if contemporary. Recent archaeological investigation at Troy reveals Homer's lie. There are three wars layers — the first and last separated by about five centuries' (See C. W. Blegen's "Troy," in the revised edition of the "Cambridge Ancient History".)
Little wonder Paul the apostle wrote of Homer — and of Hesiod and the other demented poets: "Neither give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister questions, rather than godly edifying ..." (I Timothy 1:4).
Greeks Admit Homer Was Demented No poet in ancient Greece was ever considered worthy of special honor unless he was demented. Democritus "denies that any one can be a great poet, unless he is mad," wrote Cicero (Cicero, "Divin"., i, 80). Homer was therefore mad.
Plato described the unusual kind of insanity that clutched the minds of Greece's great poet-historians and philosophers. In the "Phaedrus" Plato characterizes "poetic inspiration" as the "state of being possessed by the Muses" — a kind of "madness, which, on entering a delicate and virgin soul, arouses and excites it to frenzy in odes and other kinds of poetry .... But he that is without the Muses' madness when he knocks at the doors of Poesy, fancying that art alone will make him a competent poet, — he and his poetry, the poetry of sober sense, will never attain perfection, but will be eclipsed by the poetry of inspired madmen" (245 A). Again, in the "Laws" Plato wrote that "whenever a poet is enthroned on the tripod of the Muse, he is not in his right mind" (719 C). In "Ion" the Greek theory of "inspiration" is most thoroughly expressed: "It is not by art, but by being inspired and possessed, that all good epic poets produce their beautiful poems they are dancing, even so the melic poets are not in their right mind when they are composing their beautiful strains. On the contrary, when they have fallen under the spell of melody and metre, they are like inspired revellers, and on becoming possessed, — even as the Maenads are possessed and not in their right senses ... the soul of the melic poets acts in like manner, as they themselves admit .... And what they say is true; for the poet ... cannot compose until he becomes inspired and out of his senses, with his mind no longer in him; but, so long as he is in possession of his senses, not one of them is capable of composing, or of uttering his oracular sayings" (533 E-534 D).
In Biblical terms, Homer and all the famous Greek poet-historians were possessed of demons. It was not really the poets or philosophers who uttered the sayings, but the demon, masquerading as God, "who is the speaker, and it is THROUGH them that he is speaking to us," concluded the author of "Ion".
The conclusion is absolutely clear. History has purposely been perverted by the diabolical influence of fallen spirits who seized the minds of poet-historians, such as Homer and Hesiod, and through them twisted the events of antiquity. Jesus Himself declared that Satan, the prince of demons, "deceiveth the whole world" (Revelation 12:9). One of Satan's clever artifices is manifest in the form of corrupted history! This diabolical plot to make God and His Word appear untrue has deceived the whole world.
The Plot Centers on Troy The final fall of Troy in 677 occurred at the close of the reign of Thuoris (694-677) of Egypt. Eusebius confused this Thuoris with the later queen Twosre and placed the event in her last year of reign. (See the restoration of Egyptian history in this Compendium.) The year 677 marked the rise of Media (according to Herodotus) to power in Asia Minor east of the Halys river.
The third fall of Troy in 677 climaxed a ten-year siege of the city. A Greek victory had once before occurred — about 504 years before, in 1181. Another war, ending in 1149 — and to be discussed later — is generally unreported in Greek annals, for it was a Greek defeat!
Archaeology finds evidence of all three wars. Homer's epics deliberately associate the leaders and events of the third war with those of the first war. By so doing half of the history of ancient Greece was made to appear over five centuries too early. Events that transpired between 1181 and 677 were pushed back to the period 1685-1181.
The same diabolical conspiracy that worked through Homer in Greece also worked through the priesthood of Egypt. Its dynasties were deliberately placed successively so that sections of Egyptian history appeared five centuries earlier. Similar diabolic manipulations occurred in Mesopotamia. When later Greek, Roman, and now modern critics and historians found Homer in apparent agreement with the altered Egyptian and Mesopotamian data, they never thought to question Homer or the Egyptian records. The conspiracy — the deception — was so thorough, so far superior to human ingenuity that the whole world has been deceived by it.
Homer and the Lydian Kings To perpetuate this deception — for the critics and historians cannot admit they have been deceived — we are told that Homer lived several centuries before 677, in fact, near the time of the first Greek war with Troy.
If Homer lived at that early period, counter the critics, how could Homer have been responsible for a clever twisting of historical events that occurred long after he was dead?
The answer is, Homer's own writings date his life to the time of Gyges, king of Lydia. Homer mentions "'the Gygaean lake,' so called from Gyges, king of Lydia" (J. S. Watson's footnote to Alexander Pope's translation).
Before proceeding further, it is important to inset the kings of Lydia, from which the date of Homer may be determined. Herodotus is absolutely correct in his list of late Lydian kings. Modern historians attempt arbitrarily to shorten the reigns of the Lydian monarchs. Following is a list of the last royal family — the Mermnadae — to rule Lydia to the time of Cyrus, king of Persia.
In 546 Sardis, the capital of Lydia, was overthrown.
Mermnadae Kings of Lydia Lengths of Reign Dates
Gyges 38 716-678
Ardys 49 678-629
Sadyattes 12 629-617
Alyattes 57 617-560
Croesus 14 560-546
Prior to the Mermnadae, another line of kings governed Lydia — the Heraclidae. Their rule lasted 22 generations during 505 years — 1221-716 (Herodotus, I, 7).
The history of the kingdom of Lydia, settled heavily by the children of Lud, son of Shem, has been lost. All that has been preserved are a few fragments of Xanthus' history of his nation.
Restoring Greek History The modern interpretation of ancient Grecian civilization is a paradox. Strange though it may seem, historians today reject the valid history of Greece as error and take for granted the Homeric fable of the Trojan War!
It is time history students were told why the traditional histories of Athens, of Sparta, Sicyon and Corinth have been rejected — and why confusion rules the dates of the Trojan War. This kind of twisted thinking took its rise in the German literary criticism of the eighteenth century. In the German schools all antiquity was rejected in total as fabulous. None of the ancients knew how to write, the critics assumed. And oral tradition was at best a weak link. Within a century the historians, trained in this literary atmosphere, began to assume the same rationalist explanations of the past. With no history left by which their speculations could be judged, the historians were free — so they thought — to reconstruct the Aegean world. Even the Trojan War was called into question as fabulous. It barely passed muster.
But what the historians never thought to query was the general date of the last Trojan War. The literary critics wanted to believe in the early dating of the war with Troy to make it appear as folklore. Historians, newly entering the critical field, accepted as valid the literary critics' supposition of one early Trojan War. It never occurred to them that the period of the last war over Troy had been confused with the first war and the contemporary kings of Argos and Mycenae. Once the dates of the three major Trojan Wars are determined. the problems in Greek history vanish.
Kings of Corinth The chronological history of Greece commences later than the Tower of Babel. Hence it is necessary to begin with more recent times and build up the history of early Greece to its beginning. The starting point will be the city-state Corinth, whose dates will be immediately confirmed by those of Athens. The kings of Corinth ruled for 323 years. They were followed by a constitutional oligarchy for 90 years, then by the Tyranny of the Cypselidae. The dates of the Cypselidae are determined from nearly contemporary sources.
It should be noted that late traditional dating in the Greek world was made to conform to the Olympiads, which began at the summer solstice. The following lists may therefore generally be considered June-to-June calendar years.
The rule of the Cypselidae Tyranny lasted 73 and 1/2 years, according to Aristotle ("Politics", 1315b). It dates from 656 (June) to 583 (December). The founder of the tyranny, Cypselus, reigned altogether 30 years — 656-626. According to Eusebius, however, he associated his son Periander with him in the government in 628, after 28 years. Periander, according to Aristotle, ruled altogether 44 years until his death in 584. The date of the death of the tyrant Periander is given by Diogenes Laertius in "Periandros". Laertius, quoting Sosikrates, places it at the end of Olympiad 48, 4, immediately before Olymplad 49, 1. As the Olympiads commenced in 776, the 48th Olympiad ended at the summer solstice in 584. (Each Olympiad consists of 4 years.)
The last of the Corinthian tyrants was Psammetichus, the brother or nephew of Periander. He ruled three years according to Aristotle — 586-583 (December to December). Psammetichus came to the government SIX MONTHS AFTER Periander had completed his 40th year (reckoned from the death of Cypselus in 626), or his 42nd year (reckoned from the beginning of his reign in 628). The Armenian version of Eusebius assigns to Periander 43 years, including the calendar year in which Psammetichus came to the government.
The commencement of the Corinthian Tyranny by Cypselus in 656 marked the overthrow of the Constitutional Oligarchy. The Constitution lasted altogether 90 years — 746-656. In the year 746 the last of the early kings of Corinth was overthrown. The revolt ended 323 years of kingship. The following chart lists the kings of Corinth from the beginning of their rule in 1069 to the revolt of 746. The significance of the year 1069 will be discussed under the history of Athens.
Kings of Corinth Lengths of Reign Dates
Aletes 35 1069-1034
Ixion 37 1034- 997
Agelaus 37 997- 960
Prymnus 34 960- 926
(or 35) (960- 925)
Bacchis 36 926- 890
(or 35) (925- 890)
Agelas 30 890- 860
Eudemus 25 860- 835
Aristomedes 35 835- 800
Agemon 16 800- 784
Alexander 25 784- 759
Telestes 12 759- 747
Automenes 1 747- 746
The Constitution 90 746- 656
The Tyranny 73 1/2 656- 583
The History of Athens
Athens was for centuries, as it is today, the chief city of Greece. Its early history focuses on the year 1069 when an Athenian victory combined with a great earthquake to rekindle the myth of the "fall of Atlantis."
Modern writers reject Athens' early history altogether of course, they have never disproved it. Their only argument is the falacious assumption that the Greeks could not have known their own history!
The following chart gives the complete framework of Athenian history which has been preserved correctly from Castor, the historian of Rhodes, in the Eusebian Chronicles. Athenian history commences with the founding of the city by Cecrops in 1556.
(Eusebius dates the fall of Troy in the First Trojan War to the year 1181, just before the summer solstice. Immediately after the war Menestheus was murdered at the Isle of Melus, before he was able to return to Athens.)
Kings of Athens Lengths of Reign Dates
Cecrops 50 1556-1506
Cranaus 9 1506-1497
Amphictyon 10 1497-1487
Erecthonius 50 1487-1437
Pandion I 40 1437-1397
Erechtheus 50 1397-1347
Cecrops II 40 1347-1307
Pandion II 25 1307-1282
Aegaeus 48 1282-1234
Theseus 30 1234-1204
Menestheus 23 1204-1181
Codrus, the last Athenian king, perished in a great war in 1069. Though she lost her king, Athens triumphed over her foes. It was in this very year — 1069 — that Athen's enemies turned the rule of Corinth over to Aletes. Who they were will be noted shortly. To honor the fallen king, Athenians agreed that no other man in after days should have the honor of that office. Thereafter Athenian rulers assumed the title of Archon. Until 753 the Archons held office throughout their lifetime. The Perpetual Archons are listed next.
Demophon 33 1181-1148
Oxyntes 12 1148-1136
Aphidas 1 1136-1135
Thymoetes 8 1135-1127
Melanthus 37 1127-1090
Codrus 21 1090-1069
In 753 the Perpetual Archons were replaced by Dicennial Archons. That is, each held the office for 10 years. The seven Dicennial Archons of Athens were Charops, Aesimides, Clidicus, Hippomenes, Leocrates, Apsander, Eryxias. Their rule covered a period of 70 years — 753-683. In 683 the government of the Athenians — famous for their democracy — passed into the hands of Annual Archons, the first of whom was Creon. This date is fixed by numerous evidences. See Clinton's "Fasti Hellenici", I, 182.
Perpetual Archons Lengths of Reign Dates
Medon, son of Codrus 20 1069-1049
Acastus 36 1049-1013
Archippus 19 1013- 994
Thersippus 41 994- 953
Phorbas 31 953- 922
Megacles 30 922- 892
Diognetus 28 892- 864
Pherecles 19 864- 845
Ariphron 20 845- 825
Thespieus 27 825- 798
Agamestor 20 798- 778
Aeschylus 23 778- 755
Alcmaeon 2 755- 753
The History of Sicyon Athens was not the oldest city in Greece. That honor goes to Sicyon, a city located near Corinth. Interestingly enough, Sicyon ceased to be an important city during the flowering of Corinth, beginning in 1069. When Corinth became subject to internal strife during the reign of Periander, Sicyon again rose to prominence under the Tyranny of Clisthenes. It quickly achieved a high degree of prosperity and fame.
The ancient city-state of Sicyon lasted 1000 years, according to Apollodorus and others. Its prominence blanketed the millennium from 2063 to 1063. That the figure should be exactly 1000 years has troubled many a historian. Yet that is the plain record of history. When will men learn that the destinies of men and of cities and nations are in the hands of God who numbers all things! He determines the times and the seasons during which men rule.
There were other ancient Greek historians who reckoned the history of Sicyon differently. The information preserved from their writings assigns Sicyon dominion for only 962 years — that is, from 2063 to 1101. Year 1101 is the time of the re-establishment of the Heraclidae at Sparta, 80 years after the fall of Troy in the First Trojan War.
Both these views of the history of Sicyon are valid. The difference is only one of viewpoint. For during the years from 1101 to 1063 the old dynasty at Sicyon was displaced by priests of Apollo Carnaeus who were subservient to the Heraclidae.
The original name of Sicyon was Aegialea. This Greek name was derived from the city's first king, Aegialeus.
The name Aegialeus in Greek means "man of the coastland" or "shoreland" (Smith's "Classical Dictionary", art. "Achaia"). Compare this with the meaning of the name Eber, or Heber, from which the word Hebrew is derived. One of the root meanings of Eber is "shoreland" or "shoreregion." Another root meaning is "migrant." Both are very closely related. The ancient routes of migration usually took one along the shores of a river or along coastlands.
The evidence unmistakeably points to the name Aegialeus as a Greek translation of Heber. In other words, Hebrews were among the settlers of ancient Greece.
Elisha, son of Javan, also settled the Greek coastlands. From him the name Hellas came to be applied to Greece.
Early influence of Hebrew people in the Grecian land is also recorded throughout Greek history. Witness the incursions of the Hyksos — the Edomite Heraclidae — a branch of the Hebrews. Later the Danites from Palestine appear. The influence of Hebrews in the Grecian land helps to explain one of the most remarkable events in the Gentile world — the choosing of the Greek nation to preserve the New Testament Scriptures.
The Greeks knew of the God of Shem because the Hebrews, a Semitic people, dwelt among them. Two thousand years in advance God was preparing the Greek people for the preservation of His Word.
Moreover the Greeks have preserved most of the history of the ancient world. Manetho has come down to us, not in the Egyptian tongue, but in the Greek language. The early history of Assyria is found in Greek, so also that of the early kings of Media.
But to return to the kingship of Aegialea or Sicyon.
(The lists, as they have been handed down, add Epopeus next, followed by Lamedon, younger brother of Corax. Epopeus was a foreigner, a Shepherd King, who demolished Greek temples and altars. He is Apophis I of Egypt, Hyksos king of Dynasty XV. As Egyptian records proved he died in 1326, it is clear that Lamedon preceded Epopeus, then was driven into exile. He returned, in old age, and ended his reign shortly afterward.)
Kings of Sicyon Lengths of Reign Dates
Aegialeus 52 2063-2011
Europs 45 2011-1966
Telchin 20 1966-1946
Apis 25 1946-1921
Thelxion 52 1921-1869
Aegydrus 34 1869-1835
Thurimachus 45 1835-1790
Leucippus 53 1790-1737
Messapus 47 1737-1690
Eratus, or Peratus 46 1690-1644
Plemnaeus 48 1644-1596
Orthopolis 63 1596-1533
Marathon 30 1533-1503
Marathus 20 1503-1483
Echireus 55 1483-1428
Corax 30 1428-1398
(According to Sycellus, Lamedon reigned altogether 43 years. Eusebius assigns him only 40 years — the years prior to his exile. Eusebius attributes 35 years (from 1358-1323) to the era of Epopeus, and takes no note of Lamedon's reign after his return.)
Lamedon 40 1398-1358
Epopeus 32 1358-1326
Lamedon again 3 1326-1323
(The year 1102-1101 marks the return of the famous Heraclidae, in the 80th year after the fall of Troy (1181) in the First Trojan war. In his last year Zeuxippus was compelled to share the throne with the priests of Apollo Carneus, appointed at the return of the Heraclidae.)
Sicyon, who gave his 45 1323-1278
name to the city. (or 42) (1323-1281)
Polybus 40 1278-1238
(or 43) (1281-1238)
Inachus 42 1238-1196
Phaestus 8 1196-1188
Adrastus 4 1188-1184
Polyphides 31 1184-1153
Pelasgus 20 1153-1133
Zeuxippus 31 1133-1102
(or 32) (1133-1101)
The year 1069 (for the reign of Amphichyes) is the date of the decisive struggle when Athens maintained her independence against a grand alliance of foreign peoples, associated with the Heraclidae. In 1069 Corinth superseded Sicyon as the dominant city in the Corinthian plain.
Priests of Apollo
Carneus Governing Lengths of Reign Dates
Archelaus 1 1102-1101
Automedon 1 1101-1100
Theoclytus 4 1100-1096
Euneus 6 1096-1090
Theonomus 9 1090-1081
Amphichyes 12 1081-1069
(or 18) (1081-1063)
Enter Sparta One of the most famous cities in the classical Greek period was Sparta. Castor wrote the history of this famous city. Though now lost, its bare outline is preserved by Eusebius and others. Sparta was founded by the Heraclidae 80 years after the First Trojan War. From here, a generation later they launched an attack on Athens. Though finally defeated, they were yet strong enough to establish a new line of native kings in Corinth friendly to Sparta. The Spartan kingship, descended from the Heraclidae, was very unusual in that two royal houses ruled the throne at the same time for almost 900 years. A full list of the two royal houses is preserved in Lempriere's "Classical Dictionary", article "Lacedaemon." The following short summary from Eusebius is all that needs be included in this Compendium.
Many doubts have arisen over the dates of the Spartan kings due to the tradition among them of dating the reigns from the time of appointment to the throne as minors. In most instances Spartan kings are known to have lived into the reigns of successors who are listed chronologically as kings when only minors under tutelage.
About the year 813, when Alcamenes came to the throne, a migration into Macedonia occurred. A new line of kings was founded in Macedonia of Greco-Heraclidae descent. From this line ultimately sprang Alexander the Great, as illustrated in the following chart.
Agidae Kings of Sparta Lengths of Reign Dates
to the First Olympic
according to Eusebius
Eurysthenes 42 1101-1059
Agis 1 1059-1058
Echestratus 35 1058-1023
Labotas 37 1023- 986
Dorysthus 29 986- 957
Agesilaus 44 957- 913
Archelaus 60 913- 853
Teleclus 40 853- 813
Alcamenes 37 813- 776
In the preceding list the duration of time is accurately preserved. But it should be noted that in several occasions the change of reign does not mark the death of the predecessor, but the appointment to royalty of the son and heir to the throne. This same type of varied dating also occurred in ancient Egypt. It has led historians to treat the records as artificial or fabricated, when they should have viewed the records as relating only part of the story.
Kings of Macedonia to Lengths of Reign Dates
Alexander the Great
Caranus 28 813-785
Coenus 12 785-773
Tyrimmas 38 773-735
Perdicca I 51 735-684
Argaeus I 38 684-646
Philippus I 38 646-608
Aeropus 26 608-582
Alcetas 29 582-553
Amyntas I 50 553-503
Alexander 43 503-460
Perdicca II 28 460-432
Archelaus 24 432-408
Orestes 3 408-405
Archelaus (again) 4 405-401
Amyntas II 1 401-400
Pausanias 1 400-399
Amyntas II (again) 6 399-393
Argaeus II 2 393-391
Amyntas II (again) 18 391-373
Alexander 1 373-372
Ptolemaeus 4 372-368
Perdicca III 6 368-362
Philippus II 26 362-336
Alexander the Great 12 336-324
Alexander died in his 13th year, in 323. But as the Macedonians adopted the non-accession-year system, the last incomplete year of Alexander — 324-323 — was assigned as the first year of his brother Phillip.
Who Were the Heraclidae? Most everyone has assumed that the Heraclidae were Greeks by descent. That they were lnfluenced by Greek culture and language is true. But they were not originally Greek in ancestry. With occasional intermarriage they became partly Grecianized.
The Heraclidae are said to have returned 80 years after the First Trojan War. They returned to Greece from Asia Minor. Asia Minor had earlier been dominated by the Hyksos rulers — Apophis and Khayan. The Hyksos were Amalekites and other tribes descended of Edom (see the early chapter on the history of the Hyksos in this Compendium). Was there a racial affinity between Hyksos and Heraclidae?
The Greeks called these people Heraclidae after an ancestor Heracles. Who that man was may be discovered by investigating the history of Argos in Greece.
The History of Argos The story of the taking of Troy by Agamemnon is known to almost every schoolboy who has studied literature. What is not known today is the history of Agamemnon's dynasty. How, and when it originated, through whom it began.
The complete list of rulers of the Greek cities of Argos, Mycenae, Tiryns in the Argolid plain of Greece to the first Trojan War is derived from Castor. It has been preserved in entirety by Eusebius. (See "Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller der Ersten Drei Jahrhunderte", vol. 7, edited by Rudolf Helm.) The list is given below, with the correct dates.
Agamemnon reigned 35 years according to Eusebius — that is, from 1215 to 1180. His first seventeen years were in his youth, when Thyestes still governed. The Greeks seized Troy in the beginning of summer, in 1181, at the very beginning of the eighteenth year of Agamemnon. The king lost his life at the end of the year upon his return to Greece.
Kings of Argos to End Lengths of Reign Dates
of First Trojan War
According to Castor,
Inachus 50 1852-1802
Phoroneus 60 1802-1742
Apis 35 1742-1707
Argus 70 1707-1637
Criasus 54 1637-1583
Phorbas 35 1583-1548
Triopas 46 1548-1502
Crotopus 21 1502-1481
Sthenelus 11 1481-1470
Danaus, fled from
Egypt to Greece 50 1470-1420
Lynceus, son-in-law of
Danaus 41 1420-1379
Abas 23 1379-1356
Proetus 17 1356-1339
Acrisius 31 1339-1308
Eurystheus 45 1308-1263
Atreus and Thyestes 65 1263-1198
Agamemnon, exercised 17 1198-1181
hegemony over Argos
The date of Inachus is significant. Inachus is but the Latin form of the Greek name Inachos, or the Egyptian name Weneg. The tradition is that Inachus and his immediate descendants were in some way connected with Egypt. A comparison with Dynasty II of Egypt reveals a king Weneg whose reign ended in 1852, the very year Inachus appeared in Greece! There can be no doubt that this was an early Egyptian colony in Greece. Inachus was not some unknown hero. He was of the royal family of Egypt. Note Egyptian names of son and grandson — Phoroneus, Apis — as added proof.
Genealogy of Danaus Now consider the lineage of Danaus who came to Egypt with his brother Aegyptus, according to Greek tradition, from somewhere in the region of Arabia or Palestine. The lineage, given below, with dates of those who ruled in Greece, is from Henry Clinton's "Fasti Hellenici", vol. I, p. 101. Unless otherwise stated, each is presumed a son of the name above.
Our question is where in Scripture is Belus, the ancestor of this royal line, mentioned? The only Belus mentioned at that period in the Bible is Bela (the Latin form would be Belus), the son of Beor and brother of Balaam. Bela was a king of Edom (Genesis 36:32). Edom was the son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham. Here is one of the earliest indications of the settlement of the Aegean and the western parts of Turkey by the sons of Esau. The ancient Spartans were a very warlike people, at constant cross-purposes with other Greek city-states.
Belus, father of Danaus and Aegyptus
The many sons of Aegyptus who ruled in Egypt
constituted Dynasty VII of Memphis.
Hypermnestra, daughter of Danaus
Married Lynceus (1420-1379), son of Aegyptus
Danae, a daughter
Danae secretly had a son by "Zeus" — probably
Giemshid the Persian king.
Perseus, the Alphidun of the Persian king list
Perseus was grandfather of Eurystheus of Argos
(1308-1263). He had a son Perses, report the Greeks.
Persian history makes Perses the son of Irege, son
of Perseus. Since Irege died before his father,
Perseus must have adopted Perses as his son. His
Persian name was Manougeher, and he was known as
Phirouz — that is, Perses.
Electryo, daughter of Perseus
Alcmena, a daughter
Heracles, a contemporary of Eurystheus
Eurysthenes (1101-1059), king of Sparta
From him one of the royal Spartan kingly lines
descended. The Spartans claimed descent from Abraham
according to a letter they wrote to the Jews. See
Josephus: "Antiquities of the Jews", XII, iv, 10 and
XIII, v. 8. The Jews admitted the truth of the
statement, saying they found it in their Scriptures.
Now consider the chronological significance of Danaus' actual arrival in Argos. Note that Danaus first arrived in Argos in 1486 — the actual year he fled from his brother when the Hyksos quarreled over setting up the kingship in Egypt. For the significance of 1486 see the section on Egyptian history concerning the Exodus.
Kings of Argos Lengths of Reign Dates
According to Syncellus
Inachus, Weneg of 56 1858-1802
Dynasty II of Egypt
Phoroneus 60 1802-1742
Apis 35 1742-1707
Argus 70 1707-1637
Criasus 55 1637-1582
Phorbas 25 1582-1557
Triopas 36 1557-1521
Crotopus 24 1521-1497
Sthenelus 11 1497-1486
Danaus, flees from his brother 58 1486-1428
Lynceus 35 1428-1393
Abas 37 1393-1356
Proetus 17 1356-1339
Sea Powers of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean
One of the most interesting documents of antiquity is a list of Sea Powers (Thalassocracies) preserved by Eusebius from Diodorus. This list begins with the revival of anti-Greek Heraclidae power in the second Trojan War under the Maeonians who settled in Lydia. The Maeonians are mentioned in the Bible, in Judges 10:12 as Maonites, and as allies of the Midianites and Amalekites. (See also Judges 6:33.) "The Journal of Hellenic Studies", Vol. XXVII (1907), page 83, provides the most important scholarly study of the Thalassocracies yet made.
In the year 480 Xerxes marches his armies from Asia into Europe.
Sea Powers (Thalassocrasies) Duration Date
of the Eastern Mediterranean
and Aegean Seas to 480
Lydians, who are the Maeonians 92 1149-1057
Pelasgians or Sea Peoples 85 1057- 972
Thracians 79 972- 893
Rhodians 23 893- 870
Phrygians 25 870- 845
Cyprians 32 845- 813
Phoenicians 45 813- 768
Egyptians 43 768- 725
Milesians 18 725- 707
Carians 61 707- 646
Lesbians 68 646- 578
(or 96) (674- 578)
Phocaeians 44 578- 534
Samians 17 534- 517
Lacedemonians (Spartans) 2 517- 515
Naxians 10 515- 505
Eritreans 15 505- 490
Aeginetans 10 490- 480
Several significant figures appear in the preceding list of Sea Powers. The year 1149 marks the period of the Second Trojan War, and the defeat of the Greeks. In archaeological finds at Troy, two war layers immediately follow one another — one ending in 1181, the second in 1149. Troy, it must be noted, was a key port, the control of which was essential if the Lydians or Maeonians were to gain control of the seas. A third war layer, during the Mycenaean period, is separated by about five centuries of deposits.
The name Pelasgians in Greek annals referred to the Phoenicians and Israelites. Notice that the period of Pelasgian domination in Greek literature (1057-972) covered the period of Phoenician greatness and of Solomon's reign, referred to so often in the Bible.
Notice also the period of the Carian control of the sea. Diodorus (V, 84) declares that the Carians continued to grow in sea power even after the war with Troy. The Third Trojan War was ended in 677. This was the very period of Carian dominance. The Carians were also famous as hired mercenaries during the early years of Psammetichus of Egypt.
But what of the Egyptian sea power? No sea power of Egypt is known between 768-725 according to the modern interpretation of Egyptian history. When Egyptian history is restored, however, this period is very significant. The year 768 is the second year of Osorthon, of Dynasty XXIII of Tanis on the shore of the Mediterranean. Osorthon is called Heracles by the Greeks and was famous for his sea expeditions.
Take special note also of the dates of sea power of the Cyprians and the Phoenicians. Compare these with the chart in a succeeding chapter on the archaeological sequence of Troy. Note that the Mycenaean Late Bronze period at Troy commences during this period. This list of sea powers will offer strong evidence that the Mycenaean culture was not native Greek, but Phoenician. That the homeland of Mycenaean wares was the Syrian coast, and that the extensive settlement of Phoenician colonies in the Greek world occurred during this and succeeding centuries. The Mycenaean culture paralleled native Greek wares with their geometric designs.
The History of Italy Troy is famous in European history. After the third war over Troy, many peoples from Asia Minor migrated into Northwestern Europe and carried the name of Troy with them. London became New Troy. In France appeared Troyes.
The refugees of the First Trojan War settled also in Italy. They founded Lavinium two years after the First Trojan War — that is, in 1179 — and later the city of Alba (the site of the Pope's summer palace today) at the time of the Second Trojan War in 1149. (Consult Dionysius or Diodorus for these details.) The Trojan royal house founded in Italy a line of kings that reigned in Alba from 1178 until 753, when the center of government passed to Rome.
Latinus, king of Latium who preceded the Trojans, died in 1178, three years after fall of Troy in 1181. In Greek his name is spelled "Lateinos". Aenaes the Trojan, son-in-law of Latinus, succeeds him.
In 753, according to the accurate account of the Roman historian Varro, Rome was re-founded for the third time. Shortly before that famous event the twins Romulus and Remus killed Amulius Sylvius in the last year of his reign. Amulius Sylvius had deprived his older brother Numitor, maternal grandfather of the twins, of the throne at Alba.
Early Kings of Lavinium Lengths of Reign Dates
(founded 1179) and Alba
(founded 1149) after the
First Trojan War
Aenaes 3 1178-1175
Ascanius 38 1175-1137
Sylvius 29 1137-1108
Aenaes Sylvius 31 1108-1077
Latinus Sylvius 50 1077-1027
Alba Sylvius 39 1027- 988
Aegyptus Sylvius 24 988- 964
Capis Sylvius 28 964- 936
Carpentus Sylvius 13 936- 923
Tiberinus Sylvius 8 923- 915
Agrippa Sylvius 41 915- 874
Aremulus Sylvius 19 874- 855
Aventinus Sylvius 37 855- 818
Procas Sylvius 23 818- 795
(or 21) (818- 797)
Amulius Sylvius 42 795- 753
(or 44) (797- 753)
Slight variations in the preceding list occur in some authors. Eusebius assigned only 40 years to Agrippa Sylvius, predating each reign: Dionysius designated 51 to Lateinos Sylvius, postdating the reigns.
Another variation indicating joint rule is given in chart form thus:
In the 25th year (or 35th) year of Tarquinius Supurbus — 510-509 — the first Roman Consuls were appointed. They held their office about 16 months. The Consuls thereafter held their office for a Roman calendar year — January to January. A complete list of consular magistrates may be had in Lempriere's "A Classical Dictionary", article "Consul".
Aenaes Sylvius 30 1108-1078
Lateinus Sylvius 50 1078-1028
Alba Sylvius 38 1028- 990
Aegyptus Sylvius 26 990- 964
Kings of Rome to the Lengths of Reign Dates
Founding of the Republic
Romulus 37 753- 716
(An Interregnum of one year followed — 716-715)
Numa Pompilius 43 715- 672
Tullus Hostilius 32 672- 640
Ancus Martius 24 640- 616
Targuinius Priscus 38 616- 578
Servius Tullius 44 578- 534
(or 34) (578- 544)
Tarquinius Superbus 25 534- 509
(or 35) (544- 509)
In several instances in the preceding list, the lengths of reign of the kings are shortened by some authors — notably Eusebius, Cicero, Polybius — who viewed the royal power as subordinate, on occasion, to the Senate. But the full and correct account is preserved correctly by Dionysius of Halicarnassus' "Roman Antiquities", I, 75.
Hereafter the history of Rome is essentially correct in most histories — though the lessons of Roman rule have yet to be learned by Man!