Compendium of World History - Volume 1
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Compendium of World History - Volume 1

Chapter Fifteen:

Media, India, Japan and China

   The wide conquests of the Assyrian Empire brought her into direct contact with many nations dwelling within and beyond the confines of the Middle East. Twice Assyria attempted to conquer India. Twice she failed. Twice the Medes rose in successful revolt against the Assyrians.
   A people so far removed as the Japanese also trace their history to a remarkable event in Assyrian history. Only the Chinese, of all eastern people, remained relatively apart from the West.

The Revolts of the Medes

   In one sense no restoration of the Median Empire is necessary. Ctesias and Herodotus preserve accurately the chronological history of the early Median tribes and of two distinct revolts. The modern historian has created an artificial problem by rejecting the traditions of both Ctesias and Herodotus. Why were they rejected? Because many of the leading events surrounding the Medes' early rise to power were absolutely supernatural. Take the classic example in Herodotus. At least 150 years before the birth of Cyrus, the prophet Isaiah was inspired by God to record the name of Cyrus as the future conqueror of Babylon. The birth of Cyrus is narrated by Herodotus. The last Median king, wrote Herodotus, had no son, only a daughter. During the pregnancy of his daughter, Astyages was frightened by a dream in which it was revealed that the child to be born of her was destined to overthrow the grandfather and conquer the world. To thwart this portent he contrived to have the child murdered. The official appointed to accomplish the deed sublet the act to a shepherd whose wife has just suffered the loss of a young baby boy. The dead infant was substituted for the living infant Cyrus. Thus the young lad survived, eventually to rule the world.
   Historians view such an account as myth. By that they mean that anything so unusual as the birth of Cyrus speaks of the intervention of God whom they refuse to acknowledge. To rid themselves of His presence and His intervention in history they must discount the writers who recorded these events.
   The history of Media is preserved by several early Greek and Roman writers. Diodorus Siculus records in detail how the Medes successfully overthrew the Assyrians in 816 the time of the prophet Jonah. One of the royal Assyrian capitals at that time was at Rehoboth on the Euphrates. There the Medes successfully attacked the person of the king, Thonos Concolerus, also known as Sardanapallus, slew him and his armed guards and razed the city. Only the repentance of the Ninevites saved it from the Median ravages.
   This was also the period of the extensive conquests of Seti I in Asia.
   The Median royalty which came to power in 816 was the line of Darius the Mede. The Median kings who rose to power after the revolt in 700-699 were another and distinct line of Kings.
   Here are the Median kings according to Ctesias' record from the Persian archives.
House of Arbaces Lengths of Reign Dates
Median Rings After
Overthrow of Assyrians
at Rehoboth

Arbaces 28 816-788

His son Mandauces 20 788-768

Sosarmus 30 768-738

Artycas 30 738-708

Arbianes 22 708-686

Artaeus 40 686-646

Artynes 22 646-624

Astibaras 40 624-584

Aspadas (called Astyigas 35 584-549
or Astyages) (or 38) (584-546)
   The successor of Aspadas was Darius the Mede, mentioned in Daniel 5:31 and 9:1. The Hebrews called Aspadas "Ahasuerus". The Greeks called Darius the Mede Cyaxeres II.
   Historians have completely misunderstood the events surrounding the end of Median independence. The reason is this. There were two Median kings reigning at the same time with the same name Astyages, or similar spelling. One was grandfather of Cyrus the Persian; the other, Aspadas called Astyigas, was father of Darius the Mede. Before explaining any more details, it is necessary to introduce the second Median royal house and the second Astyages.
   In the year 700-699, following the death of Shalmaneser III, the Medes successfully completed a second revolt against the Assyrians. Not until this year were all the Medes completely free from Assyrian dominion. Herodotus preserves the names of these Median kings who ascended the throne in 699.
House of Deioces Lengths of Reign Dates
Median Kings Following
Revolt in 700-699.

Deioces 53 699-646

Phraortes 22 646-624

Cyaxeres I 40 624-584

Astyages, grandfather of Cyrus 35 584-549
   Certain late Greek and Roman writers used figures other than those given by Herodotus and Ctesias. The preceding are the original and true figures. The variants may have risen from otherwise unknown events occurring in the Median realm, or from joint reigns.
   In 549 Astyages was overthrown by his grandson, Cyrus the Persian. Cyrus had come to the Persian throne, which he shared with his father, in the year 558. He reigned altogether 29 years (558-529).
   The chronological evidence from Ctesias and Herodotus indicates the last three kings of each Median line shared the throne jointly. Each was succeeded by a son in 646, 624 and 584. An exception occurred in the case of Astyages, son of Cyaxeres I. This man, declared Herodotus, had no son, only a daughter. He ruled with a harsh hand. His daughter he gave in marriage to the king of Persia, Cambyses, who became the father of Cyrus. By contrast Josephus stated that Astyages had a son Darius the Mede. Historians have for no justifiable reason assumed the testimony of Josephus and Herodotus were irreconcilable. A little thought would have made it plain that each writer was discussing a different Astyages. Josephus, and Daniel too, wrote of the Astyages or Aspadas who was of the house of Arbaces. Herodotus' account was of Astyages of the house of Deioces.
   The confederation of Persians and Medes, often stressed in the Bible, resulted from a political union of the house of Arbaces, which began in 816, with the young Persian monarch Cyrus. Cyrus could never have come to power had there not been strife between the two Median royal families.
   Worthy of special note in the preceding charts is the date 584, ending the reigns of both Cyaxeres and Astibaras. This was 28 years after the overthrow of Nineveh (612) and marked the end of Scythian dominion in ancient Upper Asia. Who those Scythians were will become apparent in the study of Japanese history and the traditions of the Parsees of India.

History of Early India

   In 1956 a remarkable book on early India was published. Its title: "The Chronology of the Reign of Asoka Moriya." The author, Dr. P. H. L. Eggermont, resolved several difficult problems in early Indian literature. His solutions are in complete harmony with the history of Assyria.
   Many of the enigmas in Indian history could long aso have been resolved had the scholars RESPECTED the literary accounts preserved by the early scribes and priests. The first step in the solution of early Indian history began when Dr. Eggermont recognized the historicity of India's earliest literary accounts. Too many scholars had arbitrarily rejected or altered them.
   Dr. Eggermont's book does not include later problems in Indian history. As these difficulties have no direct bearing on the authenticity of Biblical history they are also excluded from this compendium. Only the history to the time of King Asoka is presented here.
   True Indian history begins with the famous battle of Kuruksetra in the winter of 1650-1649. At the winter solstice a heavy attack was launched against Sahadeva, Indian king of Magadha, by the "Assuras" or "Daityas" from the west. The Indian king perished. Had not there been some kind of supernatural change in the weather during the course of the struggle India would have been devastated. As events turned out, Assyria was defeated.
   Indian scholars long ago recognized in the "Assuras" or "Daityas" the Assyrians of the west.
   The date 1649 is paralleled in Mesopotamia. In that year king Lugal-zaggisi, of Erech's Third Dynasty, toppled Assyria's allies and suddenly seized control of the land. (See the restoration of Early Babylonian history.)
   The Bahadratha dynasty rose to power in Magadha in the beginning of 1649, upon the death of Sahadeva. Names, but no dates of previous kings are preserved. The following chart outlines the history of India until about 180.
Names of Dynasties Duration of Dynasties Dates

Bahadratha 989 1649-660

Pradyota 138 660-522

Sisunaga 162 522-360

The Nanda 43 360-317

Maurya 131 317-186
   (For the length of the Mauryas see "Persica", No. II, 1965-1966, article by Eggermont.)
   The year 1649 is not the time of the traditional migration of Aryan-speaking peoples into India. Those migrations, so famous in Indian history, did not commence until shortly before 660, toward the close of the Assyrian Empire. Aryan-speaking people were, however, already in India from earliest times.
   To the plains of India the Assyrians sent into exile (around 660) tens of thousands of Ethiopians, thousands of Egyptians and multitudes from the region of the Hindu-Kush mountains in Bactria. This forced migration was the period of Assyrian conquests in Egypt and Bactria.
   The wholesale dumping of captive slaves was climaxed by an Assyrian attempt to conquer India in 660. In that year Semiramis III (699-657) self-styled reincarnation of the "Queen of Heaven" led Assyrian troops to the frontier of India. Diodorus of Sicily describes the battle in detail in his history of India. A great catastrophe befell the Assyrians. The troops of the Queen were annihilated. She fled almost alone from the battle scene to live on in myth and religious tradition as the thrice-born "Queen of Heaven."

Early Indian Kings of Magadha

   Following the tragic Indian victory in 1649 Somadhi founded a new dynasty on the Ganges. Indian history, preserved in the Puranas, centers from this time onward in the modern province of Magadha. From here royal influence was exercised across the plains to the Indus River region. Though there were other princely families governing India, only one dynastic line exercised supreme authority.
   Political disintegration in India did not develop until centuries later.
   Following is the official account of the Dynasty of Somadhi (beginning 1649) which was overthrown at the time of the Assyrian invasion in 660. It is taken from the Vayu Purana, edited by Rajendralala Mitra, Calcutta, 1888. (Eggermont, "Chronology of Asoka", pp. 217-218).
Royal House of Somadhi Lengths of Reign Dates

Somadhi 58 1649-1591

Srutasruvas 64 1591-1527

Ayutayus 26 1527-1501

Niramitra 100 1501-1401

Sukrtta 56 1401-1345

Vrhatkarman 23 1345-1322

Senajit 23 1322-1299

Srutamjaya 40 1299-1259

Nrpa 35 1259-1224

Suci 58 1224-1166

Ksema 28 1166-1138

Bhuvata 64 1138-1074

Dharmanetra 5 1074-1069

Nrpati 58 1069-1011

Suvrata 38 1011- 973
(or 28) (1011- 983)

Drdhasena 48 973- 925
(or 58) (983- 925)

Sumati 35 925- 890

Sucala 22 890- 868

Sunetra 40 868- 828

Satyajit 83 828- 745

Virajit 35 745- 710

Arinjaya 50 710- 660
   In Indian literature other spellings and occasional variations in reigns are used. But the preceding is the official register and is in perfect harmony with parallel events elsewhere in the world. The extra long reign of Niramitra is not out of keeping with the contemporary Old Testament world in which men were living to be 120.
   Consequent to the Assyrian invasion a change of power occurred in Magadha in 660. The Pradyota regime came to prominence. Its kings ruled to the time of the death of Cambyses in Persia.
Pradyota Dynasty Lengths of Reign Dates
in Magadha

Pradyota 23 660-637

Palaka 24 637-613

Visakhayupa 50 613-563

Ajaka 21 563-542

Varttivarddhana 20 542-522
   At this juncture the Saisunagas replaced the Pradyota family. The Saisunagas received their name from the fourth and most famous king.
Dynasty of the Lengths of Reign Dates
Saisunagas in Magadha

Bimbisara 28 522-494

Ajatasatru 25 494-469

Udayin 33 469-436

Sisunaga 40 436-396

Kakavarna 36 396-360
   The Saisunagas in Indian literature were so famous that the length of the dynasty became artificially inflated with contemporary reigns to suit the heroic deeds of its kings. Dr. Eggermont had no need to restore the two dynasties preceding the Saisunagas. His efforts were spent primarily on the kings between the end of the Pradyotas (in 522) and the reign of Asoka. Any questions arising on this period should be directly referred to his aforementioned study published by E. J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
   The next dynasty after 360 was composed of one king The Nanda, or, in Indian literature, Mahanandin. His actual length of reign was only 43 years 360-317.
   The year 317 is the direct link between India and Greek history. At that date Eudamos and Peithon departed from the Panjab and Sindh, whereupon Candagutta occupied the Indus. The Mauryas ruled for 131 years. Dr. P.H.L. Eggermont proves in his book that the date for the commencement of this dynasty is not 321, as long assumed, but 317, a restoration which makes Indian history harmonious with all contemporary records.
Dynasty of the Mauryas Lengths of Reign Dates
to Asoka

Candagutta (Chandragupta) 24 317-293

Bindusara 25 293-268

Asoka 29 268-239

Dasaratha 8 239-231

Samprati 10 231-221

Salisuka 13 221-208

Somasarman 7 208-201

Satadhanvan 8 201-193

Brhadratha 7 193-186
   (See Eggermont's reconstruction in Persica, No. II, 1965-1966, "New Notes on Asoka and His Successors".)
   The year 186 marks the commencement of the Sunga Era, from which point succeeding dynasties may be accurately dated.
   For a complete list of later ruling houses consult volume I of Stokvis' "Manuel D'Histoire", p. 237.

Scythia and the History of Japan

   The vast reaches of Scythia were famous in antiquity. Within its borders lived numerous unrelated tribes. Anciently the word Scythia (or Sacae) was applied to a people living in that region in the Caucasus, (Jeremiah 51:27). This area bore the name "Land of the Rising Sun."
   But in the process of time the name Scythia passed to other tribes and peoples who dwelt in, or migrated through, the land of Scythia. Hence the Greek writers included in Scythia the Eastern Slavic people who migrated from Asia Minor into Eurasia. Diodorus Siculus refers to their queen as "Zarina" Russian feminine for Czar (Book II, 34, 3). Other writers, like Paul the apostle, divided the world into Greek and Jew, Barbarian and Scythian (Colossians 3:11) applying the name Scythian to that people which came out of the east and migrated into Western Europe and the British Isles. The modern word Scot is, in fact, merely a corruption of the old Greek Scythian.
   Herodotus describes the Eastern Scythians. To him they were unusual people, lacking body hair, with noticeably rounded face and chin, flat-nosed, speaking a peculiar language and wearing a distinctive costume (Melpomene, 23).
   According to Herodotus the Scythians of antiquity were allied with the Assyrians during most of the last century of Assyrian dominion. Semiramis III famous for her marital relations with the "kings of the earth" especially prized her relationship with these Scythians. The alliance between the two royal families endured long after the Assyrian "Queen of Heaven" died.
   In 612 the Medes and Babylonians were besieging Nineveh. Onto the scene came Scythian troops from the region of Bactria to lift the siege. The Medes, sensing what would happen if Assyria were to recover strength, submitted terms to the Scythians in exchange for breaking their alliance with Assyria. They were accepted. Nineveh fell. But the agreement cost the Medes control of much of Upper Asia for 28 bleak years. (Herodotus, Clio. 106).
   At the end of that period Media and Scythia came to blows. Scythian ravages were more than the Medes could take. The Medes were victorious. The Scythians withdrew to far Asia.
   The Parsees of India have preserved several traditions of these events. (The Parsees are Persian immigrants living in India.) In their sacred literature references to a famous prince Zoroaster II a "son of heaven" are found. He came to royal prominence in 660, following defeat in India of his mother, the "Queen of Heaven." Zoroaster means "seed of Ishtar." He spread the religion of sun-worship throughout the east. The Parsees and scholars ever since have puzzled how Zoroaster II could have exercised such influence and yet not be a king of Media or Persia They overlooked Scythia.
   In Parsee tradition Zoroaster lost his life in a war in Media in the year 584-583 (see "Ency. Amer.", art. "Zoroaster").
   Is there any Oriental nation, at least in part Scythian, with a tradition of a "son of Heaven" who came to the throne in 660, who reigned to about 584, who extended his rule from west to east, whose mother was a "goddess" and a queen, in whose land sun-worship spread? Was Zoroaster II known under another name in the Far East?
   Absolutely! In Japan. The Japanese royal throne, according to the "Nihonji", a book of traditional and sacred history, was founded in 660. Its first emperor is assigned 76 years, to 584. He was a "son of Heaven;" his mother a "goddess" and a queen. In the traditions of the Nihonji it is reported of him that he said: "Now I have heard ... that in the East there is a fair land encircled on all sides by blue mountains .... I think that this land will undoubtedly be suitable for the extension of the Heavenly task" that is, world conquest "so that its glory should fill the universe" (p. 110 of "Nihonji", trans. by W. G. Aston).
   The Nihonji continues: "In that year, in winter, ... the Emperor in person led the Imperial Princes and a naval force on an expedition against the East" (page 111).
   In Chinese history we find the following quote: "The barbarians invaded the territory of the Marquis of Wei I Kong in 660 B.C. The Marquis gave them battle in the marsh of Yug." The Chinese were defeated and the barbarians passed on to the east. ("Cults and Legends of Ancient Iran and China", Sir. J. C. Coyajee, p. 47.)
   The Japanese, according to their tradition, were led to their isles by a symbolic three-legged sun-crow. In Pamphylia and Lycia, in Scythian-dominated Asia Minor, coins have been found which bear the rare figures of three-legged birds in various forms. ("La Migration des Symboles", by Comte Goblet d'Alviella, page 222 of 1891 edition.) Compare this symbol with the Biblical "wings of a great eagle" (Exodus 19:4).
   Here are coincidences that cannot be explained unless Scythian tribes migrated to Japan under the authority of a prince who was a son of the Assyrian "Queen of Heaven." Had historians been willing to restore Assyrian history and Semiramis III to the proper place in history, had they been willing to credit the chronological framework of Japanese history, the mystery of the Scythians, of Togarmah and other peoples of North Asia would have vanished.
   Of course there are legends and apparent contradictions in Japanese historical literature. But they do not alter the essential facts of history around which the legends were later woven. Historians carelessly reject most early Japanese records on the unprovable assumption that their history could not have been recorded prior to the adoption of the Chinese art of writing. Overlooked is the fact that in Scythia they were literate long before adopting Chinese culture in the east.
   The Japanese Imperial family is found in most thorough histories of that nation and need not be included here. One note of caution, however. It has become all too common for historians to criticise freely what they do not want to believe. Because the early Japanese rulers appear to have governed unusually long 76 years, 36, 38, 35, 83, 102, 76, 57, 60, 68, etc. (but much shorter later) the early period is discounted. Yet Chinese sources of the same period refer to the Japanese as especially longlived people in the centuries immediately following their arrival to the isles. Also, the sons who succeeded to the throne were often not the eldest. "Primogeniture was evidently not recognized in Japan at the time ...", writes Aston on page 110, note 1, in "Nihonji".
   The names of Japanese emperors, by which they are known in history, are given to them after death. The first emperor received the posthumous name Jimmu Tenno signifying "divine valour." (For further references see the "History of the Empire of Japan", compiled and translated for the Imperial Japanese Commission of the world's Columbian Exposition, 1893.)

History of China

   Everyone owes a great deal of respect to the Chinese nation for being the only people whose chronological records have been preserved without need of restoration from the time of Babel till now. The history of the Chinese nation is found in the Shoo King, which means literally the "Canon of History."
   China naturally has had her literary critics who have sought to reinterpret the ancient records. Witness the "Bamboo Annals". But their attempts have been consistently rejected as unwarranted opposition to the traditional history of the "Shoo King". Only China's unusual reverence for tradition and superstition could have preserved the framework of history for more than 4,200 years:
   True, some of the events are legendary. Nevertheless, no other people's secular history is more accurate than China's. The chinese recorded their history in a form similar to the Hebrews' accounts in the books of the Old Testament. Each ruler is evaluated for his "moral conduct." His special contributions, good or bad, are simply evaluated. Such evaluations are, of course, subjective and may reflect later political thinking. But politics, in the modern western sense, was unknown in China.
   The Chinese reckon the reigns of their rulers in calendar years commencing at approximately the winter solstice. In the earliest period it fell in what would have been the later weeks of January. (See page 99, vol. III, 1, of Legge's "Chinese Classics".) As centuries rolled by, the Chinese regnal year came to approximate a January-to-January year. Later still, the solstice dropped back into December.
   The following list of Chinese rulers is derived from Shoo King, translated by Legge in "Chinese Classics", III, 1, pp. 184-188. As the later history of China is recognized by all reputable scholars as valid, only the early portion is included in this Compendium.
   Late in Chinese historiography it became the practice to add to the list of early rulers the legendary names of heroes from before the flood. These late additions are manifestly invalid, for no nation without the Hebrew record had access to the information after Babel.
   The first man of whom Chinese sources speak is Yao, or Yaou. The traditional information about Yao is nebulous. When referring to the Mongols, the Arabian historians speak of Magog and Yagog. It is likely that the Yagog of Arabic tradition is the personage whom the Chinese tradition knows as Yao.
   The results of a catastrophic flood were still apparent in Yao's day. "The deluge assailed the heavens, and in its vast expanse encompassed the mountains, and overtopped the hills ..." (Canon of Yao).
   In the lifetime of Yao a stranger named Shun came to power. The meaning of his name is obscure. Later legends found in the Shoo King attempt to create Shun a native Chinese hero. But the earliest records (some found in the Bamboo Annals) make it clear he was a black foreigner. His mother was "Queen of the West land;" his father was Kusou, or Chusou Cush. From Babylonian traditions we learn that Cush and Nimrod shared jointly in the government together until Nimrod displaced his father. In Chinese records, as in Genesis, only Shun (Nimrod) appears for he was certainly the mainspring of the rebellion.
   Shun reigned but 50 years after Babel over the Chinese people 2254-2204. Thereafter, through migration, the Chinese appear to have gained independence. A native Chinese family came to power in 2204, known in modern parlance as the Hsia Dynasty. It governed 439 years 2204-1765. (Some authors incorrectly pre-date these years into the December of the preceding year.)
Kings of Hsia Dynasty Lengths of Reign Dates

Yu 8 2204-2196

Ch'i 9 2196-2187

T'ai K'ang 29 2187-2158

Chung K'ang 13 2158-2145

Hsiang 27 2145-2118

Hong-Yi, a usurper 2118

Han Cho, another usurper,
assassinates Hong-Yi 40 2118-2078

Shao K'ang 22 2078-2056

Ch'u 17 2056-2039

Huai 26 2039-2013

Mang 18 2013-1995

Hsieh 16 1995-1979

Pu Chiang 59 1979-1920

Chiung 21 1920-1899

Chin 21 1899-1878

K'ung Chia 31 1878-1847

Kao 11 1847-1836

Fa 19 1836-1817

Chieh Kuei 52 1817-1765

Shang (or Yin) Dynasty (1765-1121)
   Under first king of this dynasty the year was made to begin at new moon nearest winter solstice.
  Ch'en T'ang                        13             1765-1752  
   In his reign China suffered from seven years of famine, shortly before that of Egypt (Jackson's "Chronology of Most Ancient Nations", vol. II, 455).
T'ai Chia 33 1752-1719

Wu Ting 29 1719-1690

T'ai Keng 25 1690-1665

Hsiao Chia 17 1665-1648

Yung Chi 12 1648-1636

T'ai Mou 75 1636-1561

Chung Ting 13 1561-1548

Wai Jen 15 1548-1533

Ho Tan Chia 9 1533-1524

Tsu Yi 19 1524-1505

Tsu Hsin 16 1505-1489

Wu Chia 25 1489-1464

Tsu Ting 32 1464-1432

Nan Keng 25 1432-1407

Yang Chia 7 1407-1400

P'an Keng 28 1400-1372

Hsiao Hsin 21 1372-1351

Hsiao Yi 28 1351-1323

Wu Ting 59 1323-1264

Tsu Keng 7 1264-1257

Tsu Chia 33 1257-1224

Lin Hsin 6 1224-1218

Keng Ting 21 1218-1197

Wu Yi 4 1197-1193

T'ai Ting 3 1193-1190

Ti Yi 37 1190-1153

Ti Hsin (Chou) 32 1153-1121

Chou Dynasty (1121-256)

Wu Fa 7 1121-1114

Ch'eng 37 1114-1077

K'ang Chao 26 1077-1051
Chao H'ia 51 1051-1000

Mu Man 55 1000- 945
   This king was unusually fond of horses and chariots. He lived during the time of King Solomon who exported horses and chariots throughout the world.
Kung I Hu 12 945-933

I Hsi 25 933-908

Hsiao P'ih 15 908-893

I Sieh 16 893-877

Li Hu 51 877-826

Hsuan Tsing 46 826-780

Yu Kung Nieh 11 780-769

P'ing Hsuang Chiu 51 769-718

Huan Lin 23 718-695

Chuang T'o 15 695-680

Hsi Hu Ch'i 5 680-675

Hui Lang 25 675-650

Hsiang Ching 33 650-618
   (from this reign on the years in this chart are reckoned as corresponding to Roman years, January through December)
Ch'ing Jen K'uang 6 617-612

K'uang Pan 6 611-606

Ting Yu 21 605-585

Chien I 14 584-571

Ling Hsieh Sin 27 570-544

Ching Kewi 25 543-519

Ching Ch'ih 44 518-475

Yuan Jen 7 474-468

Chen Ting Chiai 28 467-440

K'ao Wei 15 439-425

Wei Lieh Wu 24 424-401

An Chiao 26 400-375

Lieh Hsi 7 374-368

Hsien Pien 48 367-320

Shen Ching Ting 6 319-314

Nan Yen 58 313-256
   A list of succeeding dynasties may be found summarized in "The Year Names of China and Japan", by P. M. Susuki. A simple, though uncritical, outline of each emperor's reign is preserved in John Jackson's "Chronology of Most Ancient Nations". Few modern writers cover the earliest period (except Legge's original translation of the Shoo King in the "Chinese Classics"). If described at all, China's earliest ages are unfortunately limited to studies of potsherds and bronze statuary!

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Publication Date: 1967
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