Historical Commentary Daniel 11
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Historical Commentary Daniel 11
Wilbur A Berg & Ambassador College  

This chapter prophesied in great detail the events which shaped the Persian, Seleucid and Ptolemaic Empires down to the time of Christ (verses 1-32). It is an out­standing example of the historicity of the Bible and of fulfilled prophecy. The following lists of kings are given so that the interaction between these nations can be better understood. This historical commentary covers only verses 1 through 32 as the remainder of the chapter deals largely with prophecies which are yet to be fulfilled.

Rulers of the Persian Empire (Some dates are controversial)

Cyrus the Great, 558-529 B.C.
Cambyses, 529-522 B.C.
Pseudo-Smerdis (Gomates, the Magian), 7 Mo., 522-521 B.C.
Darius I, Hystaspes, 521-486 B.C.
Xerxes I, (Ahasuerus) 486-465 B.C.
Artaxerxes I, Longimanus, 465-425 B.C.
Xerxes II, 425 B.C. Sogdianus, 425 B.C.
Darius II, Ochos, (also Nothos), 424-405 B.C.
Artaxerxes II, Mnemon, 405-359 B.C. Artaxerxes
III, Ochos, 359-338 B.C. Arses, 338-336 B.C.
Darius III, Codomannus, 336-331 B.C.
(Completely overthrown by Alexander the Great at Arbella in 331 B.C.)

   There were four major divisions of Alexander's Empire after the battle of Ipsus (301 B.C.). The Seleucid and Ptolemaic Kingdoms ultimately engulfed the other two and became the prototype of the.king of the north and the king of the south. Because of the Bible story flow, the following dynasties are listed only through the era of Antiochus IV, Epiphanes. Some of these dates are also controversial.

I. II.
Cassander Lvsimachu
(Greece and Macedonia) (Asia Minor)
Kings of the North Kings of the South
(Seleucid Dynasty) (Ptolemaic Dynasty)
Seleucus I. Nicatir Ptolemy I. Soter
(301-281 B.C. —Most of Syria, all of Babylonia and areas east to India) (Egypt, Palestine, part of Syria)
Antiochus I. Soter Ptolomey II Philadelphius
(280-261 B.C.) (285-247 B.C.)
Antiochus II, Theos.
Seleucus II, Callinicus Ptolemy III, Euergetes.
(246-226) (247-222)
Seleucus III, Ceraunus
Antiochus III, "The Great". Ptolemy IV, Philopator.
(223-187) (222-205)
Ptolemy V. Epiphanes.
Seleucus IV, Philopator. Ptolemy VI, Philomator.
(187-175) (181-145)
Antiochus IV, Epiphanes. Ptolemy VII. Eupator.
(175-164) Called either Eupator, Philopator or Euerogetes II, (Physon)
The following books are the major sources from which this commentary was compiled. The abbreviated symbols are used instead of the full titles.
L - William L. Langer — An Encyclopedia of World History
M - J. P. Mahaffy — The Empire of the Ptolemies, 1895 edition.
DRM - Dorothy Ruth Miller — A Handbook of Ancient History in Bible Light
R - George Rawlinson — A Manual of Ancient History, 1871 edition.
(In addition, the Adam Clarke and Critical and Experimental Commentaries are both good supplementary sources of information.)
Verse 1. The first year of Darius the Mede was 538-537. (The first year of Cyrus, 536-535, followed a two year reign of Darius). Notice that the entire prophecy from 10:20 through 12:4 was continuously spoken by the angel. The Jewish Publication Society translation makes this plain.
2. DRM, p.127, gives the above list of rulers of the Persian Empire. As Cyrus was already ruling jointly with his uncle Darius the Mede (10:1), the four Persian kings would appear to be those following him: Cambyses, Pseudo-Smerdis (after the murder of Smerdis by Cambyses), Darius X and Xerxes. However, if Pseudo-Smerdis is not considered a legitimate claimant to the throne, Cyrus would be the first of the four kings as only Xerxes fulfills the requirements of the fourth. R, p.114, tells of Xerxes enriching himself with the plunder of Babylonian temples, then turning his attention to the invasion of Greece. An excellent description of the history of these Persian kings is found in Rawlinson, The Seven Great Monarchies, Vol. 2, 1885 edition, pp.447-465, 474-490("Stir up all")-502. See also R, p.102 ff. and p.112, which shows that Darius was defeated in his attempts to conquer Greece. The latter part of Daniel 11:2 can therefore only apply to Xerxes. See also Esther 1:1-3 which refers to Ahasuerus or Xerxes and gives some background information regarding the preparation for his strike against Greece.
3. The "mighty king" is Alexander the Great who defeated the Persians under Darius III at the battles of Issus (333 B.C.) and Arbella (331 B.C.). R, pp.233-238, gives a good summary of his reign. L, pp.65-66, shows how he fostered a belief in his own divinity and how he sought to amalgamate his conquered nations through intermarriage. The Seven Great Monarchies by Rawlinson, Vol. 2, pp.538-550, gives excellent detailed infor­mation about these major battles, showing that everything that Darius did was of no avail — God had prophesied his downfall. Also, pp.543 and 544 give a good example of how Alexander did "according to his will."
4. The term "four winds" can be best understood in relation to Palestine. R, pp.238-250, shows the scramble for power which ultimately reached an apex at the battle of Ipsus (301 B.C.) in Phrygia. At that time Ptolemy (Soter) ruled Egypt, Palestine, and part of Syria, Seleucus (Nicator) ruled most of Syria, all of Babylonia and the area east to India, Lysimachus ruled Asia Minor and Cassander ruled Greece and Macedonia. Mahaffy, Alexander's Empire (1898 edition), pp.43-65-70, also describes this same battle for power. CRM, pp.200-203, outlines the same period and shows that the kingdoms of the Seleucidae (Syria) and the Ptolemies (Egypt), kings of the north and south, ultimately became the strongest and wealthiest of the kingdoms carved from Alexander's empire (p.203). See also L, p.78, who records this major division of spoils, and R, p.264, for more description of Ptolemy's holdings. M, pp.36, 61, 63, and 65, also describes this division and M, p.49, shows that every possible legitimate claimant to Alexander's succession was swept away which made possible the creation of the independent sovereignties.
5. Mahaffy, Alexander's Empire, p.69, shows how Seleucus I, Nicator, became stronger than Ptolemy (king of the south) through the seizure of most of Syria in 301 B.C. See also R, p.264. DRM, p.202, shows that Seleucus also obtained Asia Minor after Lysimachus was killed in 281. See L, p.81 and R, p.250 for additional proof of this. Also M, pp.65,66, and 69. Pages 101, 102, and 106 show how the king of the south became strong (first part of verse 5).
6. The phrase "in the end of years" does not appear to mean at the time of the end. See verses 13, 27, 35, and 40 which seem to show that this is a continuous prophecy extending from the Persian Empire to the time of the end (v. 40). Antiochus II of Syria married Bernice, daughter of Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) king of the south. Antiochus' first wife (Laodice) had Bernice, her infant son (not her father as KJ implies — see KJ margin) and the Egyptians who attended her murdered and Antiochus poisoned. See R, pp.251 (bottom), 252; DRM, pp.205, 210, 211; L, p.81; M, pp.171, 172, 196, and 198.
7. Ptolemy III (Euergetes), brother of Bernice, invaded and conquered Syria and Asia (246-241 B.C.). Height of Ptolemaic power. Seleucus II (Callinicus) was King of Syria (north) at that time. See R, pp.252, 272; L, pp.81, 84; DRM, pp.205, 211; and M, p.196.
8. DRM, p.205, mentions the plundering of Syria and Palestine by Ptolemy III. R, pp.273, 274, mentions the restoration of the religious idols which were recovered in Ptolemy's eastern expedition and the peace which was made with Seleucus in 225 B.C. (Seleucus died in a fall from his horse in 226 B.C., R, p.252. Ptolemy III outlived his rival, not dying until 221 B.C.) See also M, p.197, which mentions Ptolemy gathering the reserve treasure of the Syrians, and pp.200, 205, which describe the recovery of all the Egyptian gods which had been carried away by the Persians as spoil.
9. Summation of verses 7 and 8. R, pp.252, 273, and DRM, p.205, show that Ptolemy III had to return to Egypt after the Syrian and Eastern invasions because of a revolt back home.
10. The sons of Seleucus II were Seleucus III who reigned for only three years, and Antiochus III, the Great, who restored the Seleucid Kingdom to its former extent. Seleucia, the port of Antioch, was retained on the Syrian coast despite losses after initial success (L, p.81). DRM, pp.205, 206, mentions Antiochus III making war on Ptolemy IV, Philopater, of Egypt. The stronghold or fortress was Raphia, near Gaza, on the border of Egypt, which Antiochus attacked in 217 B.C. R, pp.252, 253, covers this era as does M, pp.220 and 250.
11. The king of the north, Antiochus III, the Great, was defeated at Raphia by the king of the south, Ptolemy IV, Philopater. See L, p.84; R, pp.253, 275; DRM, p.206; and M, pp.253, 256, and 261.
12. The King James translation is the clearest. After Raphia, a treaty was made and Palestine, part of Syria and Phoenicia were ceded to Egypt. Ptolemy IV's heart was lifted up in the city of Jerusalem on his return trip to Egypt where he tried to enter the Holy of Holies. God miraculously prevented him and he sought to revenge himself on the Jews living in Alexandria when he came back to that city (DRM, p.206; R, p.350). His wretched character is described by R, p.274.
13. Fourteen years after Raphia (203 B.C.), the king of the north was still Antiochus III who assembled a great army for the Egyptian campaign and allied himself with Philip V of Macedonia against Ptolemy V, Epiphanes who was a weak king (DRM, p.206; R, pp.254, 276; L, pp.81, 84; and M, pp.291, 292).
14. The above-mentioned alliance of Antiochus III and Philip V of Macedon- against Ptolemy V, Epiphanes, king of the south. Many wealthy Jews emigrated to Egypt rather than subject themselves to the Syrians under Antiochus III after he had made himself master of Palestine (DRM, p.206 and M, pp.292-294). Adam Clarke comments that they thought the Jews and Egyptains should become one people and that they hoped to build a temple like that of Jerusalem in Egypt and thus fulfill the prediction in Isaiah 30:18-25. However, they rebelled against the Egyptians, joined Antiochus, and suffered when Ptolemy's army momentarily subdued the Jews around Palestine.
15. The king of the north is Antiochus III who defeated Scopas (Egyptain ally) at Paneas (Panium) in Syria in 198 B.C. Palestine came into possession of the Seleucid Dynasty (DRM, p.206). Scopas fled to Sidon (a strongly "fenced city") where he was forced to surrender (Critical and Experimental Commentary, notes on Dan. 11:15). See also R, p.254, and M, p. 292.
16. All of Palestine was subjugated to Syrian rule under Antiochus III. (References under verse 15 apply to this verse as well).
17. Roman intervention prevented a further Syrian expedition against Egypt. A scheming treaty was then made in which Antiochus III's daughter, Cleopatra (not the one in Egypt at 31 B.C.), was given in marriage to Ptolemy V, Epiphanes in the year 193 B.C. This plan to conquer Egypt failed when Cleopatra aided her husband against her father (DRM, pp.206, 207; R, pp.254, 277; M, pp.298, 305, 306).
18. Antiochus III invaded Asia Minor, Greece and took the Aegean Islands. Be did not heed Rome's warning to get out of her European Territory and he was defeated by the Roman General L. Cornelius Scipio in the battle of Magnesia near Smyrna in 190 B.C. (L, pp.81, 88, 89; R, pp.254, 445, 446; DRM, p.207; M, pp. 307, 310).
19. Because he was greatly in need of money, Antiochus attempted to plunder the Temple of Baal at Elymais in Armenia of its gold and silver treasure and was stoned to death by the people of the city (DRM, p.207; R, p.254).
20. Seleucus IV, Philopator, needed tribute money to pay Rome and sent Heliodorus to Jerusalem to rob the temple of its wealth. God miraculously stopped him. Seleucus was murdered by Heliodorus (DRM, p.207; R, pp.255, 351; M, pp.310, 332).
21. Antiochus IV, Epiphanes, succeeded his brother Seleucus IV. He usurped the throne from his nephew, Demetrius, who was the son of Seleucus IV (DRM, p.212; R, p.255; M, p.332).
22. Heliodorus seized the throne after the death of Seleucus IV. However, Antiochus IV, with the help of the Pergamene King, Eumenes, drove Heliodorus from the throne (R, p.255; DRM, p.212). Antiochus IV deprived Onias of the high priesthood and sold it to the Bellenized Jesus or Jason who in turn sold it to his brother Menelaus (R, pp.351, 352; DRM, p.213).
23. Antiochus IV dealt deceitfully with both the Romans and Egyptians after agreements had been made with them. His deceit is also illustrated by the above-mentioned transferral of the Jewish high priest's office (R, pp.255, 256, 351).
24. The great extravagance of Antiochus IV in Palestine is well illustrated by DRM, p.213. Extensive hellinization occurred during this period. See also R, p.351.
25. The king of the south was Ptolemy VI, Philometor. Antiochus VI, Epiphanes, reduced Egypt in four campaigns. Egypt was so defeated that she asked Rome for help (R, p.256; DRM, p.213; M, p.333).
26. Ptolemy Philometor was taken prisoner by Antiochus Epiphanes (Antiochus was the uncle of Ptolemy) and Antiochus was crowned King of Egypt at Memphis. Alexandria then revolted and chose Ptolemy Philometor's brother (Ptolemy Physcon) as king (R, p.278; DRM, p.213; M, p.333).
27. Antiochus Epiphanes left Ptolemy Phi lometer as King of Egypt at Memphis where he then refused to continue as Antiochus1 tool. Also, the joint reign of the two brothers (Ptolemy VI, Philometor, and Physcon, Ptolemy VII) was quarrelsome and deceitful during this period (R, pp.278, 279).
28. Antiochus IV, Epiphanes, returned to Jerusalem (where a civil war was taking place between the rival claimants of the high priesthood) and severely persecuted the Jews (R, p.351; M, pp.337, 495).
29. Antiochus Epiphanes invaded Egypt a second time but was stopped by the Roman naval commander and Ambassador, C. Popilius Laenas, who commanded his immediate withdrawal from Egypt (L, pp.82, 89; R, p.278; DRM, p.214; M, p.337).
30. The first part of the verse is explained in the notes on verse 29. Antiochus Epiphanes retreated a second time through Palestine and again vented his rage on Jerusalem with the assistance of renegade Jews under Menelaus (R, pp.256, 351; DRM, p.214; notes of Critical and Experimental Commentary on this verse; M, pp.339, 340).
31. Climax of horror. Cp. Dan. 8:11-14. The daily sacrifice was abolished, an idol of Jupiter Oiympius was set up in the Holy of Holies, and am altar for sacrifices to Jupiter Oiympius was set up in the temple upon the place of the Jewish sacrifices. The Jews were forbidden to observe any of God's laws (R, pp.255, 351; DRM, pp.214-216; L, p.32; M, pp.340, 341).
32. Many Jews rejected God's covenant. This verse describes the era of the Maccabean revolt to the time of Christ (R, p.352; DRM, p.216, 217; L, p.32).
The tenth chapter of Daniel provides the setting for Daniel 11 — the longest continuous prophecy in the Bible.
v. 1 The prophecy is given in 538 B.C.
v. 2 The four kings: Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius I, and Xexes, who was far richer than all and attacked Greece.
v. 3 Alexander the Great defeated Persians at battle of Issus (333) and Arbella (331).
v. 4 Alexander's empire divided to four generals (plus other unimportant divisions): Ptolemy took Egypt; Antipater took Macedonia; Laomedon took Syria; Seleucus Nicator took Babylon.
v. 5 King of South is Ptolemy Soter; his prince Seleucus Nicator who finally seizes Syria in 312 B.C.
v. 6 Marriage between Antiochus II of Syria and Bernice, the daughter of the king of the South. Antiochus' first wife takes vengeance by having Bernice slain, the Egyptians who attended her killed, her son murdered (not the father of Bernice as implied in KJ mistranslation) and Antiochus poisoned.
v.7 Ptolemy III, brother of Bernice, conquers Syria.
v. 8 Ptolemy carries 2400 idols into Egypt as spoil. King of South outlives his rival and peace exists for a time.
v. 9 This is a summary verse. King of South attacked Syria (verses 7 & 8) and because of sedition in Egypt returns home.
v. 10 Of two sons of Seleucus II, ONE — Antiochus the Great — invaded Syria, Palestine and concludes treaty. Renews war in 217 B.C. and attacks Raphia, near Gaza, a fortress on the border of Egypt.
v. 11 Philopater of Egypt defeats the king of the North at Raphia.
v. 12 Egyptians annex Palestine to Egypt, but make rash treaty with Syria which dissipates victory. Philopater persecutes thousands of Jews in the city of Alexandria because he was struck with paralysis when trying to enter Temple at Jerusalem.
v. 13 King of North — Antiochus III (the Great) — after 14 years assembles great army to conquer Egypt which has weak king.
v. 14 Syrians make treaty with Philip of Macedon against Egypt. Wealthy Jews who fled to Egypt to build a temple there rebel against Egypt when Syria commences invasion. Jews suffer. ("Vision" is found in Isaiah 19:18-25.)
v. 15 Antiochus, momentarily occupied by attack from Pergamum, again attacks Egypt in 198 and defeats Egyptians ally Scopas at Paneas and retakes Palestine.
v. 16 All of Palestine in power of Syrians under Antiochus the Great.
v. 17 Antiochus plans to conquer Egypt by trickery. His daughter Cleopatra given in marriage to Ptolemy Epiphanes. This "deal" had appearance of uprightness or equal conditions, but it failed. Cleopatra aids husband against her father.
v. 18 Antiochus invades Asia Minor and takes Aegean Islands. Roman general Scipio", 190, causes Syrian reproach to Rome to return on his own — Antiochus overwhelmingly defeated.
v. 19 Antiochus, after returning to Antioch — a fort — is murdered at Elymais by people for plundering temple to pay Roman indemnity. Circumstances of death are controversial.
v. 20 Heliodorus sent by Seleucus IV as tax collector". King is poisoned. Should be translated there shall arise one who shall send a tax collector.
v. 21 Vile person: Antiochus Epiphanes
v. 22 Collects armies who quell foes. Onias, high priest, replaced by Jason.
v. 23 Antiochus Epiphanes deals deceitfully with Rome and with high priest. Jason now replaced with Menelaus. (This man is type of final "beast" dictator in Europe.)
v. 24 Antiochus distributes wealth; issues threats; uses propaganda.
v. 25 Antiochus Epiphanes reduces Egypt in four campaigns beginning in 173. Forecast devices: A bribery and propaganda.
v. 26 Ptolemy Philometor of Egypt is betrayed to Syrians and made prisoner in guise of friendship because conqueror and prisoner are uncle and nephew. Egyptians in Alexandria make Ptolemy's brother king.
v. 27 Uncle and nephew at banquet table each try to deceive the other.
v. 28 Antiochus returns and persecutes Jews who rejoiced upon hearing false report that Antiochus died (I Maccabees 1:19-20).
v. 29 King of North returns to Egypt when brothers learn of uncle's treachery. Roman demand withdrawal. Rome makes Egypt a protectorate.
v. 30 Ships of Kittim: Roman fleet. Renegade Jews join with Gentile Syrians to destroy what remained of true religion in Palestine.
v. 31 Climax of horror. See Daniel 8:11-14. Altar and/or idol of Jupiter Olympus set up. (A type of an event in the coming tribulation.)
v. 32 Many Jews reject covenant of God. Maccabean revolt.
v. 33-35 The Church of God to time of end. Jews do not know God, nor does persecution make them righteous.
v. 36 The king is ruler of the North. It is not Syria because Rome occupied Syria. Rome is king of the North. Verse describes Roman emperors and successive revivals to our day! Emperors exalt themselves.
v. 37 Proper translation: Neither shall he regard gods of his fathers. (Romans never knew true God.) Desire of women is Tammuz (Ezekiel 8:14), who was false Christ. Emperors reject authority of false Christ.
v. 38 Proper translation is "god of fortresses". Could refer to the emperors' attitude of self-deification, their "might makes right" approach.
v. 39 A prophesy concerning the Feudal period, when there was a strong connection between Church and State. During that time the secular rulers increased the power of the Catholic Church and guarded it against foes. Translations differ. First part of the verse could mean that with the help of the pope the secular ruler gained victories. Those who acknowledged him, he increased with power.
v. 40 King of South: Ethiopia. King Menelek defeats Italians in 1896. Mussolini defeats Ethiopia. (1935)
v. 41-45 NOT YET FULFILLED. Palestine conquered, Transjordan escapes. Russian threat, Europe attacks first. Vatican moved to Zion.
Commg - A New Roman Empire!
Dan. 2
The Image
Daniel 7
(State)        (Church)
Dan. 8
and GOAT
Revelation 13
(State)           (Church)
Rev. 17
of Symbols
Fulfilled in
Head of
v. 32, 39
like LION
v. 4
                  1st HEAD
of prophetic
EMPIRE (Babylon)
625-539 B.C.
Breast and
arms of
v. 32, 39
v. 5
RAM with
2 horns
v. 3, 4, 20
2nd head
of prophetic
559-330 B.C.
Belly and
thighs of
v. 32, 39
4 heads
v. 6
with great
horn and
4 notable
ones v. 5-8,
21, 22
3rd, 4th, 5th,
of prophetic
GREECE, under
Alexander the Great,
and four divisions,
334-331 B.C.
Legs of
v. 33, 40-43
strong like
IRON with
v. 7, 23, 24
with 7
v. 1, 2
7th HEAD
of prophetic
with ten
from 31 B.C., later
in 2 divisions,
West and East
v. 3
Barbarian conquest of the
fifth century A.D.
1st HORN
1st HORN These three
adherents of
the Arian
form of
destroyed at
behest of the
"little HORN"
429-533 A.D.
2nd HORN
Odovacar's government,
476-493 A.D.
3rd HORN
493-554 A.D.
among ten
v, 8, 20-22,
and "IMAGE"
v. 11-18
who rode
v. 1, 2
Ruled the
and its copy
("image") of the
Roman Empire
1st of
7 horns -
(to continue
1260 years)
v. 5


1st HEAD
ridden by
Since the
never rode
any of the
7 heads of
the 1st
4 Beast, but
did mount
and ride the
last 7 horns
of Daniel's
4th Beast, it
follows that
the last 7
horns of
Dan. 7 and
Rev. 13 are
the 7 HEADS
of Rev. 17
Roman Empire in the West
by Justinian, 554 A.D.
2nd of
2nd HEAD
ridden by
3rd of
3rd HEAD
ridden by
EMPIRE (German head)
4th of
4th HEAD
ridden by
(Austrian head)
5th of
5th HEAD
ridden by
(5 are now
(French head)
In 1814, just 1260 years after "deadly wound" was healed, the "HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE" was dissolved.
"So closed a government that dated from Augustus Caesar" (West, p. 377).
6th of
6th HEAD
ridden by
(One is)
Rev. 17:10
ITALY, united by
1870 to 1945
The ten
7th and
Beast ascends
out of pit
7th head
and ten
(One yet
to come)
of 10 nations or
groups of nations
This chart will help you understand and correlate various prophecies concerning the stage or revivals of the Roman Empire.
R is Rawlinson
M is Mahaffy
Date B.C. Historical Fulfillment
:2 R 114
:3 R 237 336-323 (Then a mighty king shall arise)
:4 M 36 Ptolemy
M 61 Seleucus                Four
M 63 Lysimachus          Winds
M 65 Cassander
M 45-46 Mahaffy's Alexander's Empire is excellent
R 245 (Divided toward four winds)
:5 M 65 306 Ptolemy Soter (King of South)
M 66 Seleucus Nicator (King of North)
M 69
M 87 (Ptolemy shall be strong yet Seleucus
M 101 shall be stronger)
M 102
M 106
:6 M 171 250 Ptolemy II, Philadelpheus (King of South)
M 172 Antiochus Theos (King of North)
M 196
M 198 (A marriage covenant between Ptolemy and
R 251 Antiochus. Antiochus shall not stand.
R 252 The bride shall be given up.)
:7 M 196 285-247 Ptolemy III (King of South)
R 252 Seleucus II, Kallinikos (King of North)
R 272
(For out of a branch of her roots shall
 one stand up, i.e. Ptolemy III.)
:8 M 197 247 Ptolemy III (King of South)
M 200 Seleucus II, Kallinikos (King of North)
M 205
(He shall take back the gods and
 treasure to Egypt.)
:9 Ptolemy III (King of South)
the AV is different from other versions
R 252 240 Seleucus II (King of North)
* 2884 (Seleucus shall come into Egypt again,
but shall return to Syria.)
:10 M 220 227-187 Seleucus III (King of North) and 3 years later.
M 223
M 243 Antiochus the Great (King of North)
M 250 Ptolemy III (King of South)
(His sons, Seleucus and Antiochus the
Great, shall wage War and again receive
his garrison, the city of Seleukeia.)
:11 M 253 Antiochus the Great (King of North)
M 261 Ptolemy III (King of South)
(A great army shall meet Antiochus the Great.)
:12 M 262 217 Antiochus the Great (King of North)
M 264 Ptolemy IV, Philopater (King of South)
(Ptolemy's feeling of pseudo—exaltation will cause him to fail.)
:13 M 265 205-203 Antiochus the Great (King of North)
M 291-2 Ptolemy Epiphanes (King of South)
R 254
(Antiochus the Great shall return into the land with greater power.)
:14 M 292 Antiochus the Great (King of North)
allied with Phillip of Macedon
Ptolemy Epiphanes (King of South)
(He again comes into Palestine.)
:15-16 M 292 198 Antiochus the Great (King of North)
Ptolemy Epiphanes (King of South)
(He maintains power in the "glorious land.")
:17 M 298 198-195 Antiochus the Great (King of North)
M 305 gives his daughter to
M 306 Ptolemy Epiphanes (King of South)
R 254 (A marriage union.)
:18 M 307 190 Antiochus the Great (King of North)
M 310 Ptolemy (King of South)
* 2885 This account tells of his sea disaster near "the isles".
(He was defeated on land as well as in and near the isles of the sea.)
* 2883-
2885 (Gives a good picture up to verse 18)
:19 M 310 187 Antiochus the Great (King of North)
R 254
(Antiochus the Great died ignominiously.)
:20 M 310 187-175 Seleucus Philopater (King of North)
M 332 and soon came in the "tax collector"
R 255 Heliodorus.
:21 M 332 175 Seleucus Philopater (North) died in
R 255 175 B.C., allowing to come to the throne
Antiochus Epiphanes (King of North)
(Antiochus Epiphanes ascended into the place of his brother.)
:22 R 255 Antiochus Epiphanes (King of North)
(He set up a new high priest.)
:23-24 M 332 This text says he made himself popular with those in Judea,
R 255 while R (Rawlinson) apparently says he didn't.
:25 M 333 171 Antiochus Epiphanes (King of North)
R 255- meets his nephew, Ptolemy Philometer,
256 (King of South)
(Antiochus Epiphanes gains inconclusive victory.)
:26-27 M 333 174 Antiochus and Philometer (King of North)
R 278 against
Ptolemy Euergetes (King of South)
(Antiochus forces Philometer to join him against Euergetes.)
:28 M 337 168 Antiochus' first retreat from Egypt.
M 495
R 255 (He plundered Judea.)
:29-30 M 337 168 Antiochus Epiphanes (North) capitulates
R 278 to Popillius of Rome
M 339- 168 Antiochus' second retreat through
340 Palestine.
(He sets up the abomination that makes desolate.)
:31-32 M 340- 168 Antiochus Epiphanes (King of North)
R 255 (He shall profane the temple.)
* History for Ready Reference, Vol. 4
Note: A timely testimony to the break-off of the prophecy is found on page 316, Book of Daniel, Expositor's Bible.




Publication Date: 1982
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