Here's the Biggest foot in the Mouth of Evolution... THE MEGAPODE
Garner Ted Armstrong & Paul W Kroll
TRACKING DOWN THE MEGAPODE by William Myers
MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA Reading about a turkey-like bird, called the mallee fowl found only in faraway Australia a bird which incubates its eggs in a mound of leaves and sand, using decaying vegetation and the sun for heat and its tongue or bill for a thermometer is exciting enough! But actually seeing and photographing the bird (member of megapode family) IN ACTION, thrashing around in its natural habitat, is one of the most interesting assignments any photographer could have. To bring PLAIN TRUTH readers a firsthand report on the malice fowl including on-the-spot photographs meant going to mallee country! So off we went on a "safari" to the wilds.
IN MALLEE COUNTRY
A suitable location to study the mallee fowl was found at the 3000-acre Lowan Sanctuary near Kiata, Victoria. It's a very small town, located about 225 miles west of Melbourne Australia. Here, the mallee fowl live in protection in their natural estate. At Kiati, we met Mr. Keith Hateley, the Chief Ranger of the reserve. He showed me the grounds and introduced me to his two special mallee fowl friends ROMEO AND JULIET! At a prearranged time, early in March (the temperature there would correspond to late August in the northern hemisphere), we rendezvoused at the Sanctuary. Mr. Hateley then drove us to a remote spot in the scrub, From there, we trudged through the bush. All along the sandy trail, we saw mallee fowl tracks. There were also hollowed out places used by the birds for dust baths! At the end of the trail, we practically stumbled across what looked like a gigantic anthill. It was all strewn over with a litter of twigs and sticks. But this was NO anthill! This was "home" for a pair of mallee fowl- a giant mound "nest."
ON STAGE, ROMEO
We sat and talked about 20 or 30 minutes. Suddenly! a large, beautiful bird came scampering out of the scrub and darted onto the mound. He knowingly surveyed the situation. One brief glance and test told him what to do, He began to rebuild the mound, refilling the hole which Mr. Hateley had moments earlier hollowed out. Romeo stood, king-of-the-mountain fashion, on top of the mound. Facing outward, he came near the edge of the crater. Then, he reached forward with large, powerful feet. In a beautifully rhythmic fashion, he sent footfuls of sand cascading into the center of foe mound. Meanwhile, our camera was recording Romeo's efforts. We clicked off a few photographs. It wasn't long before the mound was in shape and Romeo retired into the bush.
SOME OTHER MOUNDS
We returned to the car and drove to another spot in the Sanctuary; again, hoofing it along a similar sandy trail as before. Ahead, we caught a glimpse of a mallee fowl leaving its mound. We didn't see that bird again. But we wanted to see that mound. It was fully open! The birds were preparing it for next season. The mound looked like a miniature volcano. A person with a shovel couldn't have done a neater job. Mr, Hateley explained that this mound was estimated to contain SIXTEEN TONS of soil. The recess of the mound full of organic matter was some two feet below ground level. Further along, we found another nest. Mr. Hafeley dug into it to expose the eggs. Four were uncovered. The eggs are deep salmon in color. Each weighs about six ounces. Females are virtual egg-producing machines. They may lay as many as thirty-five each season. After seeing all this, we returned to the starting point, signed the guest book and reluctantly left the Sanctuary. But we had the photographs and especially the information we needed. We were convinced, after seeing the mallee fowl in action that evolution is a little cracked. And, if you will excuse the expression, the mallee fowl provide a MOUND OF EVIDENCE that they were created by God each pair faithfully reproducing "after its kind." Read the article and prove it to yourself! Here's the Biggest foot in the Mouth of Evolution... THE MEGAPODE by Garner Ted Armstrong & Paul W Kroll
Facts about the MEGAPODE (big foot), a little-known Australian "brush turkey," have evolutionists wrangling. Seems they can't decide whether this rare bird is degenerate, over-specialized, or primitive. As a matter of fact some of them wonder whether it's even a bird.
In this special series of articles on Evolution, we have repeatedly shown the amazing DOUBT and DISAGREEMENT between proponents of the theory. Our articles have inspired much comment. We have had reports from teachers, using the articles as material in their classroom lectures; students using them for special reports; pastors basing their sermons on them; and many thousands of laymen enjoying every word. Not all comment has been favorable, of course. One particularly angry woman said it would "take forever" to refute the points in these articles. Her letter appears in this issue's "What Our Readers Say" section.
Evolution, remember, is the product of intelligent men. Once a man has rejected God, and does not want to even admit the concept of a God into his mind (Romans 1:28), he must then explain all the fathomless mysteries of life, physical science, and creation WITHOUT a Creator. To the carnal mind, which has ALREADY DECIDED to reject God evolution DOES SOUND PLAUSIBLE! Unthinkingly, many point to the mere process of birth; from conception to fetal development, to the human baby as an "evolutionary" process. Somehow, it never occurs to them they are witnessing wondrous LAWS in motion. That the tiny ovum ALWAYS becomes a human. That there is NOTHING "simple" about the tiny fetus and that comparisons between human fetal development and chicken or bird embryos are MERELY COMPARISONS ANALOGIES and that analogies PROVE NOTHING. The chicken embryo ALWAYS becomes a chicken! The human fetus ALWAYS BECOMES A HUMAN. And, as frustrating as it may be to many an evolutionist, their very arguments FOR evolution turn out to be some of the greatest proofs AGAINST the theory. It's FAR more logical, and FAR more scientific, to see the overall PATTERN in the reproduction of all living things as a MASTER PLAN of DESIGN. The very FACT of embryonic beginnings looking similar is PROOF of ONE GREAT MIND who thought out ALL LIFE. SO let's once again clear the air. Let's USE OUR MINDS. IF evolution could possibly be true (previous articles have UTTERLY disproved it!) then why is it so ILLOGICAL? Why is it so UNSCIENTIFIC? Why must there be so many UNANSWERABLE PUZZLES? Is it FAIR, I ask again to ask the SAME questions of evolution it demands of theologians? WHY? WHAT? WHEN? WHO? WHERE? How? Is it "fair," is it following the "rules" of proper research to ask HOW evolution COULD have taken place in SPECIFIC INSTANCES? Embarrassing as it may become irksome though it maybe it is still a monumentally impossible question to ask of evolution, "Which came FIRST the chicken or the egg?" ALL life begins with an "egg" or a tiny germ of life. In this article you will read of one of the strangest, and most demanding methods of preserving an egg of guarding an embryonic life until it hatches the facts about the INCUBATOR birds, or mallee fowl of Australasia.
What Is a Megapode?
Nearly everyone has, at one time or another, seen a tiny fledgling sparrow or other bird dead beneath its nest. We're accustomed to the house wrens, thrushes and sparrows around us. Familiar with their nests, and colored eggs. Like most people, you've probably never heard much about the strangest nesting technique in all the bird kingdom that of building an elaborate incubator, rather than simply warming the eggs with body heat. But the mallee fowl does just that. The megapodes, meaning "big feet," have been divided up into ten species of which the mallee fowl is one. The most widely distributed, Megapodius, can be found from the Philippines to central Australia, and from Fiji to the Nicobars. What's so different about these "big footed" birds? Plenty. For one thing, they build "nests" composed of huge mounds of soil, twigs, leaves and other humus which have been known to reach FIFTY FEET in diameter, and 15 to 20 feet in height! Imagine the shock of some of the first Europeans to stumble across such a mountainous pile of compost in the Australian outback. As a matter of fact the first
Mallee Fowl Eggs Buried Treasures! Myers Ambassador College Mr. Keith Hateley, chief ranger at Kiata Lowan Sanctuary, opens mound to expose mallee fowl eggs. Each weighs about six ounces. Mr. Hateley holds egg (center photo) to show relative size. (See PDF For Pictures)
reports of one species of the incubator birds brought back to Europe by one Gemelli Careri, a survivor of Magellan's round the world trip, were simply discarded. Too fantastic to believe. Of course, belief in witches, mermaids, a flat earth, sea monsters and the like was rife but the megapode sounded too incredible to such discerning ears. So the birds were written off as wild sailors' yarns.
It Is a Nest
Earliest settlers in Australia stumbled across the huge mounds and were promptly informed by the Aboriginals there that they were "birds' nests." The Europeans laughed. Surely the Aboriginals were trying to deceive them they decided the mounds were actually tombs of dead warriors. And so the natives laughed. It wasn't until 300 years after Careri's report that a naturalist thought to dig into one of the mounds to find out. But when John Gilbert took the obvious step that had somehow escaped the world for centuries, he found, sure enough birds' eggs! It wasn't until comparatively recent times that serious study of these strange fowl progressed beyond casual chance observation. But now a great deal more is known. All of these fowl build mounds. The females are virtual egg-laying machines, depositing up to thirty-five eggs, a few in each mound, during the egg-laying season which extends over a long span of time. The bird has huge feet for its size, about that of a turkey. The big feet are used for the piling up of materials for the huge mounds the male prepares for the eggs. Which came first, incidentally, the big feet, or the big mounds? But more of that later. These birds have a wide range. They are found in some of the most wildly varying temperature and climatic differences on earth. From the steamy, tropical jungles of Indonesia to the hot, arid deserts of central Australia, the megapodes must alter the size and the type materials used in building their incubator mounds. One close student of the megapodes had to remark on studying the ability of these birds: "I find it remarkable that a bird is able to estimate the amount of organic matter it must add to a heap of soil so that the heat generated by fermentation is just enough to bridge the gap between the soil temperature and the temperature necessary for incubation. "It almost suggests that THESE BIRDS UNDERSTAND SOME CHEMISTRY!" (Scientific American, Incubator Birds, August, 1959.) But birds don't have the intelligence to figure these things out. As a matter of fact, most HUMANS have a difficult time grasping the principles and formulas of chemistry. How could "dumb" birds figure out such complex formulas? How could they modify their behavior to fit the different situation? Could they have EVOLVED all this through blind natural selection? The brush turkeys are another group of megapodes that live in the steamy rain forests of northern Australia and New Guinea. They must face different conditions. But they are also able to almost miraculously regulate the temperature of their nests. There are also other species. Each varies from the other in its nest building characteristics. But each also survives perfectly in its environment. However, we are interested particularly in one species of the megapode family.
The Mallee Fowl
Of all the megapodes, the mallee fowl is perhaps the most fascinating. He has the greatest obstacles to overcome. Yet, he is totally up to his task. The mallee fowl is also called the Lowan after the Australian aboriginal name. Its scientific name is Leipoa ocellata. Leipoa means to "leave an egg" and oceilatus means "marked with little eyes." The mallee fowl lives in semi-desert and arid inland Australia. The rainfall is very slight. Leaves don't rot. They're either eaten by termites or blown away. Even if the bird could scrape a few leaves together they simply wouldn't ferment. But here is a bird that DEPENDS on generating heat by fermentation. If he can't generate heat, then the eggs in the mound WILL NOT hatch. And no eggs, no mallee fowls. Let's analyze that a second. Evolutionists tell us that over long period, of time the mallee fowl must have been forced to develop the habit of incubating his eggs. (We'll see three different theories for the mallee fowl's habits later. You can take your pick.) The only problem is that the birds would BECOME EXTINCT in about twenty-five years or so since no new offspring would be produced. But the mallee fowl continue to this day.
The Temperature Problem
The preservation and hatching of the maliee fowl egg depends on a very constant temperature. But the air temperature varies from around 110 degrees Fahrenheit to lee than 20 degrees during the nesting season. The mallee fowl must somehow SOLVE this fluctuation and keep his mound at a constant temperature. Would you be up to the task? The mallee fowl is! The mallee fowl has to put up with a 60-degree deep-soil temperature and a wildly fluctuating surface soil temperature. The male mallee takes charge and builds the mound. He must stay within 200 yards and constantly tend to the nest. Sometimes he works so hard that he is panting and dog-tired after reworking the mound. The work begins in May, which is like November in the Northern Hemisphere. A fifteen-foot hole is dug about two- to four-and-a-half feet deep. During the winter he scouts around for leaves. These he piles in the hole. About August, which corresponds to our temperature in February, he piles in a couple of feet of soil. This completely covers the leaf litter. The moist organic matter, sealed off from the dry air and sun, soon begins to ferment. The temperature in the mound begins to rise.
The Egg Is Laid
In mid-September (corresponding to March in the Northern Hemisphere), the female lays her first egg. That egg will hatch about early November at the end of spring weather. During the entire incubation period, the male must regulate the temperature. Many birds aim EXACTLY at 92 degrees F. Some allow a fluctuation between 90 and 95 degrees. At Kiata, where our men saw the mallee fowl in action, the eggs were kept at 94 degrees F. this was the MEAN temperature in all mounds. How difficult is it to maintain a constant temperature? Well, a simple experiment prohibiting the male from reaching the mound was tried. The result? The mound temperature promptly rose to 115 degrees Fahrenheit! That's much too hot. Later in the season, the soil temperature drops. The male must REVERSE HIS PLAN and raise the temperature of the mound. Somehow, he must balance the heat from fermentation and the sun. So accurate is the mallee fowl's ability at heat regulation that the egg temperature SELDOM fluctuates more than one degree during the whole season. If the mound is too hot, he digs into the mound up to the egg chamber. He allows just enough heat to escape and fills up the hole with cool sand. At times, the eggs overheat, or at least tend to do so. The mallee fowl simply piles more soil on the mound. This insulates the eggs from the sun's heat. If this doesn't do the trick, the male bird removes the soil and scatters it in the cool morning air. Then, he collects it together and remakes his mound. This eliminates the excessive heat in the incubator. When the air temperature falls, the bird has an opposite problem NOT ENOUGH HEAT. Now, he scatters the soil clueing the hot part of the day. The eggs are almost exposed to the sun and receive heat from it. Also, the soil which the malice fowl has spread out in the sun receives heat. He piles the heated sand and soil on the mound for added warmth. This is only part of the complex series of motions which the mallee fowl must go through to keep a constant temperature.
You Can't Fool that Fowl!
Mr. H. J. Frith, who is considered one of the foremost authorities on the mallee fowl, had this to say after he tried to trick these birds: "We thought it possible that all this temperature control work could be merely part of a FIXED behavior pattern evolved by natural selection to suit the seasons. "But the birds, while changing their work with the seasons, MAKE DAY-TO-DAY ADJUSTMENTS... our observations suggested that the birds know what is happening inside the mound and vary their activity deliberately. "In one case we sabotaged an actively fermenting mound by removing all the organic material. The internal temperature quickly fell from 92 to 60 degrees... in December this male was slaving away warming his mound, while all the others were busy cooling theirs. Obviously he was aware that something was afoot. "In another series of experiments we installed heating elements in a mound so that we could control its temperature...he always detected our trickery and was so efficient that our thermostats and our 240-volt generator could barely cope with his efforts. He ALMOST WON THE STRUGGLE to keep the eggs at 92 degrees" (Scientific American, Incubator Birds, H. J. Frith, August, 1959).
How Does He Do It?
Here's a bird that understands chemistry and has an uncanny ability to measure heat! But further, he is a SLAVE to his built-in chemical and heat regulating ability. In other words, he does HIGHLY INTELLIGENT work without exhibiting any real thinking power. Now, that's a real paradox for evolution! A person doesn't become a chemist or expert in heating unless he diligently STUDIES the laws that regulate chemistry and heat. It has taken many men generations to understand some of the principles the mallee fowl knows by rote. Why can't scientists see that it took an intelligent being to create the mallee fowl all "wired up" to perform his mound-building feats. Intelligence in animals who CANNOT THINK or have very limited ability to learn is proof that an Intelligent Being had to infuse those creatures with the knowledge they have. Take the amazing bill of the mallee fowl. When he works, he intermittently jabs his bill into the mound. He takes it out, filled with sand. The mallee fowl then allows the sand to trickle to the ground. Observers are convinced that the bird's "thermometer" is somewhere in his bill. But does the mallee fowl think, to himself, "Hmmm, I see the sand is too cold"? Obviously, not. Because he can be tricked into opening the mound to HEAT it when the sun is not strong enough to generate sufficient heat! The point is: a mallee fowl has an almost unbelievable ability to measure heat. But he cannot look around at conditions that would require a really intelligent change on his part. If all leaves disappeared and the sun didn't shine, all mallee fowl would soon become extinct. They would never evolve. Mallee fowl were created by God to do EXACTLY what they are capable of doing, to live in a particular environment and nothing more!
All Mallee Fowl Build Mounds
ALL mallee fowl build essentially the same nest or mound. Why, if evolution is a fact, do birds of any given species build IDENTICAL nests? And, if one type of nest supposedly evolved into another, why do we have such extreme diversity among different species? If one group of birds can survive with a "primitive" nest, why take the trouble to evolve into another kind? It doesn't make any sense. Changes in climate, you say, caused different types of nests? But why do birds that build different types of nests live in the SAME general location? One observer of the mallee fowl said of the mound-building technique: "When I first heard of these mound builders, I wondered why other birds had not adopted this habit? Why should they not deposit their eggs in an incubator and lead a life of leisure instead of exposing themselves to the cares and dangers of the common method of incubation? "I no longer wonder. "The construction and maintenance of its incubator mound call for great skill and stamina and ceaseless heavy work for most of the year. Normal incubation must be EASIER IN EVERY WAY" (Scientific American, Incubator Birds, H. J. Frith, August, 1959). But the mallee fowl continues to build mounds. And other birds their kinds of nests. One well-known ornithologist flabbergasted about nest-building in general- admitted: "Though the location of the nest, its form, and the techniques and materials required for its construction are extremely diverse among different species, the completed nest is REMARKABLY UNIFORM among the members of a single species. "This uniformity is all the more remarkable when one has realized that many nests represent the work of young birds that have had NO PREVIOUS TRAINING or experience in nest construction" (Biology of the Birds,
Mallee Fowl Nest Open and Shut case! H. J. Frith Photos Top photo shows nesting mound in early spring. Bottom photo shows nest in mid-summer heaped high to prevent overheating of eggs. (See PDF For Pictures)
Wesley Lanyon, pages 127-128). Ah, did you notice? How did birds, with no previous training, build the same nest as the other members of their species? Remember such "acquired characteristics" if they be that couldn't be passed on. How did birds that didn't have the necessary genes to build a particular nest) ACQUIRE THEM? Why are nests so diverse among DIFFERENT species, yet so uniform among a SINGLE species? Again, there simply is no answer apart from a great Creator God that built in the computerized information necessary for particular birds to act in a special fashion. It's the true and only really logical answer. There is tremendous variety among the birds as to where they build nests, how these nests are constructed, and from what materials they are put together. Some don't build nests. The Piping Plover simply makes a slight depression in the sand and lines it with bits of shells. Waterfowl pluck the down feathers from the female and make their nests. The Fairy Terns lay and hatch their eggs on bare branches. The Chimney Swift builds its nest of twigs. It uses its own sticky saliva as glue. The South American ovenbird uses mud. The Crested Flycatcher uses a convenient cavity in a tree. The Downy Woodpecker excavates his own nest. The Blue-gray Gnatcatcher uses lichen to cover and camouflage its nest. The diversity of nests is proof positive that birds were created by God. In its way, the mallee fowl is among the most interesting of birds and the facts prove that bird is another handiwork of the Great Creator God! But evolutionists don't believe this. They dare to say that the mallee fowl EVOLVED. Of course, you have several theories to choose from some of them quite contradictory. So take your pick.
The "Highly Specialized" Theory
One idea is that it is a "highly specialized" habit that the mallee fowl has. In clear language that means: "We have to call this bird primitive, but ability to understand chemistry and detect heat is so PHENOMENAL, we can't really explain it." Here is this idea from an evolutionist: "How, then, did they come to possess the mound-building habit? Some observers believe it is a survival from birds' reptilian ancestors... having watched the labors of the male mallee fowl... I REFUSE TO BELIEVE that it is a primitive characteristic. "Every observation suggests that the incubation process is very highly developed and specialized" (Scientific American, Incubator Birds, H. J. Frith, August, 1959). The author then goes on to say: "It is more likely that the ancestors of the present-day megapodes were ground nesting birds that developed the habit of covering their eggs with sand or leaves when leaving the nest, as a protection against predators. Several present-day birds, in fact, do this..." Need we say more? The author follows with several "probablies" and "perhapses" while the climate and flora of the Australian subcontinent are gradually changing over hundreds of thousands of years. Nice theory! But did it really happen this way? And could the mallee fowl ancestors (whoever they were) really survive? Even more basic: Do creatures CHANGE their entire anatomy and basic behavioral characteristics? Of course not! It's never been proved. A dog is still a dog no matter how many varieties there may be. That's the "highly specialized theory." But there are at least two others to choose from.
The "Degenerate Bird" Theory
The second theory proposes that this bird was rather an unwise creature that, after becoming advanced, reverted to a more degenerate behavior. Here is the theory in a nutshell. "These strange birds (the incubator birds) have puzzled scientists for years... it is not even known for sure that they are birds... George A. Clark, an ornithologist at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut... believes the bird has REVERTED secondarily to reptilian habits, much like the whales and porpoises, which are mammals, but have returned to the habits of their fish ancestors." (Popular Mechanics, "Odd Bird, the Megapode," February, 1961, page 76.) Another author put it bluntly: "Some ornithologists have supposed the habit of this bird is... a degenerate process on the part of birds that once knew better" (Birds and Their Attributes, Glover M. Allen, page 191). So there! That's theory number two.
The "Primitive Bird" Theory
This idea goes something like this: "In attempting to reconstruct something of their [birds' nests] ancient history, it is NATURAL to see if there may not be some birds that still retain traces of REPTILE habits in the care of the eggs... to find among birds a parallel to these first instincts of nesting, we naturally turn to the groups of birds considered least advanced of those NOW LIVING and discover a habit so similar among the Megapodes... that it seems too good to be true. "Here then is at least the method of the alligator and it certainly meets the requirements for a PRIMITIVE ONE among birds" (Birds and their Attributes, Glover M. Allen, page 190-192). Who is right? Is the mallee method primitive, highly specialized or degenerate? And why such disagreement among intelligent men who have studied these birds? Why such CONFUSION among those who have a broad background in the field of ornithology, men who are experts in the field? Simply because all these ideas are speculation. They are attempts to explain design without a Designer, creation without a Creator, intelligence without an Intelligent Being bestowing that intelligence. And it can't be done! All these REQUIRE a God, some intelligent Being, who thought out and planned the entire creation. But, since these men REJECT a living, Almighty God they are left with hopelessly unproven, confusing and disagreeing speculations. Mallee fowl are considered "least advanced." But WHO considers them and why? There's nothing primitive about a mallee fowl mound. So he can't fly. Neither can human beings and they aren't "primitive." The idea of "primitive," "degenerate," "over-specialized," and other such terms are merely attempts by scientists to set up evolutionary trees. These trees don't exist except in men's minds.
Trying Out Evolution
But let's try out the "evolutionary method" for a moment. Let's APPLY what we have learned about the megapodes to an evolutionary process, and see if it is logical in any degree. Let's once again go back back in time MILLIONS OF YEARS, AEONS ago, and see if we can peer into that remote time when these strange birds were either "advancing" FROM reptiles, or "degenerating" back TO reptiles, whichever we may choose to select. We are looking at our first megalawhatchamaycallit ancestor of all megapodes. He doesn't have big feet yet, since he hasn't yet evolved the need to build mounds. And no built-in thermostat, either. Just like any other bird, he picks his mate at random, and then leaves her to sit on the eggs, hatching them from her own body heat. But if megapodes were doing this, then WHY EVOLVE SUCH A HUGELY DIFFICULT method of incubation? And why did the female evolve a system of laying THIRTY-FIVE eggs in different places at different times? And if the megapodes had to frantically scramble around to keep their eggs warm from hot sand, which came first, the big feet for digging, or the practice of random egg-dropping? After all, if the megapode began by nesting like ANY OTHER bird, and was "surviving" quite well by doing so, then why would he NEED to evolve such monstrous feet? And if he NEEDED to evolve such feet he had to do so in a frantic HURRY, since his entire following generation would have PERISHED the moment the female of the species began refusing to sit on the nest! But if she didn't refuse to sit on the nest then she's still doing so, and there aren't any megapodes. But let's say the male just wandered by the nest one day, and found, to his disgust and dismay, that the female had left the eggs in the open (whether in a tree, a bush, or on the ground may be a problem here but let's "imagine" it was on the ground). Did the male just kick some sand on it? But HOW MUCH sand?
And when the night fell, and the blazing daytime temperature dropped (as it does in the Australian deserts) by more than 40 degrees then how did the male megalawhatchamaycallit
Marvelous Mallee Above, mallee fowl stands in center of mound and begins kicking sand into center of nest. Below, opposite page, Mr. Hateley plays with Romeo, male mallee. (See PDF For Pictures)
manage to keep that egg warm through the cold night? And if he sat on it (the easiest method) then why doesn't he sit on the eggs to this day? And, if he struggled mightily to keep that ONE egg alive what of the other thirty-four or so the female was dropping haphazardly all over the landscape? And in this brain-defying process how the male megalawhatchamaycallit decided to begin preparing ALL KINDS of mounds IN ADVANCE of the egg-laying season is another headache. And, about that built-in thermometer in his beak. When did he first USE such a fantastic device? If he NEEDED it to tell the temperature of the pile of sand and humus (if any), then he needed it THAT VERY FIRST COLD NIGHT, didn't he? And if he didn't evolve it until "natural selection" decreed he NEEDED it then the conditions that REQUIRED it already prevailed. But if that is true then all the first generations died, because he couldn't tell the temperature in the sand. But let's forget all these problems. After all they're not mentioned in any of the evolutionary texts. What of the hatching of the chicks? There's a significant difference in the megapodes and all other "birds" in this regard. Instead of depending on regurgitation (the method used by many birds in feeding their young), and a long process of developing feathers, the babies immediately begin DIGGING. And they dig UP, not down! (Another problem!) Think of the fantastic difficulty a migrating megapode would encounter IF he could have possibly EVOLVED his mound-building techniques (which reason, scientific fact, logic and HONESTY PROVE HE COULD NOT!). In the tropical rain forests he finds no sand. So he must scrape together huge mounds of rotting jungle vegetation. But the rate of fermentation of decaying jungle vegetation is tremendous! In almost no time, after a rain, on a steamy, humid day, that pile of rotting jungle would build up enormous temperatures! The poor bird, having become gradually "equipped" to "survive" in the Australian deserts would be in a terrible dither, trying to quickly regulate the temperature of his mound and without having yet evolved his built-in thermometer! Oh sure, it's seemingly "easy" for some people to "IMAGINE" how the fowl may have GRADUALLY wandered farther north, or how climatic conditions may have GRADUALLY changed but how utterly DIFFICULT! It would have been FAR easier, rain or shine, jungle or desert, to keep the eggs at even temperature BY SITTING on them! And that takes no special "imagination." No reasonings, daydreams and imaginations won't cause God to disappear, Evolution is utterly FALSE! The great Creator God, whose infinite mind THOUGHT OUT, PLANNED, and CREATED all things, specially DESIGNED all the myriad creatures around us. He is the Inventor, Originator and Creator of YOUR MIND. The proofs against evolution are VAST. And YOUR OWN MIND is one of the greatest even a human mind that IMAGINES there is NO GOD! There is STILL TIME, now, for hard-hearted, stiff-necked, God-rejecting mankind to REPENT and to begin to acknowledge their God, and to WORSHIP and SERVE Him! There is still a little time left to PROVE God exists. Shortly, there will be no shadow of doubt not in the staunchest atheists' or agnostics' minds.