How do you eat with no mouth? How can you crawl with no legs? How to digest food with no stomach? To respond to touch with no sensory organs? And how reproduce, without reproductive organs? Believe it or not, all this, and much more, is accomplished by the "simple" amoeba. "Simple"? Well, it seems to fit the evolutionary scheme of things to call it so. But here are the facts!
Practically everyone believes evolutionists MUST have "something going for them." Millions of churchgoers, religionists, peoples of all faiths must daily experience vague anxieties and wonder when confronted with the usual run-of-the-mill claims of scientists' experiments with "creating" life in a lab; or discoveries in the Olduvai Gorge in Africa which seem to substantiate the claim man came from lower animals. Most simply shrug it off. They know, vaguely, there must be some sort of CONFLICT somewhere. But looking into it would seem ponderous, and they wouldn't know where to begin.
Evolution — Its Tentacles Are Everywhere!
Many are the hundreds of thousands of housewives, junior executives, shop-owners, taxi drivers, laborers, carpenters, electricians, truck drivers, salesmen, designers, engineers, and other laymen who, more or less spasmodically, attend some sort of religious assembly. At least, once or twice a year. And those same thousands read the newspapers, watch the movies on television, and see published pronouncements of science on evolution, almost daily. Evolution is part and parcel of their daily lives. It was infused into the education they received. It colors the entire philosophical concept of all important matters in our society. Race, crime, sex; none of the issues are solved by claiming absolute mores and laws, but are viewed in the pragmatic sense with mall, the "animal," as a "transitory" creature adjusting to ever-changing social conditions. Evolutionary thought is all around you. Most of you, regardless as to previous education, could probably remember about as many evolutionary catchphrases as you could quote scriptures. You could remember, "simple to complex," "primates," and words like "gradual change" and "adaptation" and "survival of the fittest." Other Darwinian proverbs may pop into your recollections from time to time. And many people, even with high school education now two decades in the past, can still remember that magical word "amoeba." They may even remember having watched the little blob-like speck of life shimmering in magnified reality through the lens of the high school science lab microscope. And with the teacher right there and the charts on the wall, the illustrations on the board, the affirmations in the textbook — it all seemed quite logical that the "single-celled" little "animal" may, indeed, be the surviving remnants of a long-ago ancestor of yours. But what you didn't hear is just how terrifyingly COMPLEX these little blobs of life are — and what a terrible puzzle they have been, for half a century, to evolutionists! They're such a puzzle, in fact, that even their dictionary definition is unclear! Like other useless and sometimes funny appellations man has chosen, in his ignorance, for lack of a better term, the amoeba is a sad name, indeed. It comes from the Greek, and means, loosely, change, or to change. More accurately, it indicates "to migrate." And why this name? Well, because the little blob of life seems to ever change, ever multiply — dividing into TWO little single-celled animals. Even the words used to describe what an amoeba is are equally inadequate. For example, scientists say amoebae are tiny specks of "protoplasm." But the idea that they are "BEFORE" shapes, molds, or forms is not proved! Protoplasm is supposed to indicate the "first-life" form; the basic structure of life. Plasm can mean "matrix" or "form" or "mold." So evolutionists have in fused veritable DOGMATISM into the LABELING of various life forms — insisting that amoebae are "PROTOPLASM" or "PRElife forms" or "FIRST-life forms." They are nothing of the sort. But then, we call a fly a fly — when we could just as easily call it a "walk" or a "buzz" or a "humm." We call a grasshopper a grasshopper, when we could use "weed hopper," or "stalk-jumper," or "ground-leaper," or "spit-bug," or "flying, jumping, bug-eyed, big-legged, armor-plated, leaping whatchamacallit!" Our names of creatures and things leave a great deal to be desired. So, in studying into evolution, you were introduced to the little "amoeba" which, you were assured, was "protoplasm." But that, too, is a false label. But let's take a look at the little speck of life, and find out about his anatomy.
Anatomy of an Amoeba
Most amoebae are microscopic, or barely visible to the human eye, and live in water. They move slowly along the bottom of pools, or over living or dead matter in water, or in soil. Some few varieties, such as the one scientists have dubbed "Pelomyxa carolinensis" — a large fresh-water species measure 1 or two millimeters across, or about the size of a pinhead. These are considered large amoebae, and are barely visible to the naked eye. But most species are visible only with microscopes. A common species is only about 1/20th the size of the "carolinensis," and is called "Amoeba proteus" (there's that old Greek root, "proto" again). Amoebae seem to move with fluid-like determination at about the same pace as a sluggardly snail. They may consume up to two hours to move 1/3 of an inch — and even this is remarkable, when you consider they have no legs, as such. And, for all the "simple" structure of this little fried-egg-like "protoplasm" — he's actually a creature of prey. He senses, hunts down, and "captures" other microscopic plants and animals with ponderous, miniature: determination. He's skillful, patient, and persistent. But he has no definite shape, no "personality" — and is, for all appearances, a simple "blob" of being — a speck of "living matter" — a piece of "life," as it were. But for all the seeming simplicity, and the deceptive name of "protoplasm," there is an intricacy — a complexity — about this speck of life that has puzzled and confused scientists for more than fifty years! First, there is the "nucleus" — which seems to control the entire cellular activity. The nucleus could be compared to the whole central nervous system, brain, and vital organs of a human, perhaps. That is, if it weren't for the various food "vacuoles" or minute "stomachs" which contain enzymes for the digestion of captured prey. There is a process for expelling excess water — through what is called a "contractile vacuole." A skin-like substance, wearing the scientific name of "plasmalemma," holds the little thing together. It's "tough,"' considering the size and characteristics of the little blob — and yet exceedingly flexible — what with no skeletal structure. All the cellular components are held suspended in a fluid-like substance, called cytoplasm, encased in the plasmalemma.
The "Monster" Amoeba
To other microscopic plants and animals (if they are that), the amoeba must appear a huge monster, indeed. It sends out "pseudopodia" (fake feet) with which it gradually engulfs its prey. Of course, some speedy little microbes may escape — but the persistent amoeba can eat up to 100 microscopic victims each day — and grow fat on them. Just how this mindless, shapeless, non-entity of the cellular world captures prey instead of specks of bark, or bits of sand, is unknown. But that isn't all that's unknown about them. Just HOW does the little organism, for example, adapt the size and shape of the "pseudopod" it puts out to the TYPE OF VICTIM? Scientists are puzzled. But the pseudopod will vary in size and shape according to the size and type of the VICTIM it is trying to engulf! An amoeba apparently can tell when a prospective meal lies near at hand (in this case, about 1/250th of an inch!), and "send out" a blob-like extension of itself — a pseudopod (fake foot!) to engulf it. Scientists feel the "proteus" requires a varied diet. Laboratory experiments have proved that when "Amoebae protei" are fed exclusively on "Colpidia" (small ciliates, or microscopic animals), or on the colorless flagellates "Chilomonae," that they grow fat, sluggish, and will continue growth and multiplication for only a few days — and then may gradually die. So the right kind of food is important. But HOW does the amoeba send out a "pseudopod" to engulf food? WHAT MAKES it "sense" food nearby? How does it MOVE ABOUT? WHY does it divide? How DID IT GET THAT WAY? What was BEFORE it? If anything? Science has no specific answers. As a matter of fact — most scientists insist we must NOT ask "WHY" of the creation. Watching an amoeba under a microscope, you may observe several "pseudopodia" all sent out in the same general direction — toward its prey. Then, the "body" of the amoeba seems to gradually "flow" along toward these extensions, until they again become a part of the whole rather formless mass. Or, from time to time, pseudopodia will be sent out in opposite directions — whenever the amoeba "wishes" to change direction, the main mass simply seems to flow toward the reverse pseudopodia, and the whole entity takes more of a round shape once again. Biologists have studied this perplexing problem — of AN AMOEBA'S MOVEMENT — for more than half a century. They still can't agree on how it all takes place. There are nearly as many theories for such movement as there are authors to advance them!
What IS an Amoeba?
Said one noted author, after painstaking analysis of the amoeba's movements, "Putting all our results together, we must conclude that the movements and reactions of Amoebae have as yet by no means been resolved... (Contributions to the Study of the Behavior of Lower Organisms, by Herbert S. Jennings, pages 225, 226). Later, the same author admitted, "While we must agree that Amoeba, as a drop of fluid, is a marvellously simple organism, we are compelled, I believe, to hold that it has many traits which
A "SMART AMOEBA" — Amoeba sizes up potential food victim, finds it is a piece of debris given to fool him. Finding the particle inedible, the amoeba shuffles away — able to determine food from non-food. Gentry — Ambassador College — (See PDF For Pictures)
are comparable to the 'reflexes' or 'habits' of higher organisms. We may, perhaps, have faith that such traits are finally resolvable into the action of chemical and physical laws, but we must admit that we have not arrived at this goal even for the simpler activities of the Amoeba." (Emphasis mine throughout.) Another prominent author states, "As to what causes such movement, we have only hypotheses... Any theory of amoeboid movement will ultimately have to take into account the processes of energy production and metabolism. At present nothing is known about these processes insofar as they are involved in protoplasmic movement... we are still in the realm of hypothesis" (Introduction to Protozoology, by Reginald D. Manwell, page 138, quoting DeBruyn, 1947). Not only have scientists been unable to do more than SPECULATE about how an amoeba MOVES, or WHY it does — but they REALLY don't know WHAT it is! It may sound "sufficient" to call it a SIMPLE little animal — and attach the name of "protoplasm" to it — in order to make it appear logical that this little "single-celled" speck of life could have, indeed, been the progenitor of all of us — but this is NOT PROOF. It is merely reasoning through ANALOGY — which proves nothing. But you have to hand it to scientists who have swallowed the evolutionary theory. They HAVE GREAT FAITH. Their faith is sometimes AWESOME, even to a religionist! In SPITE of evidence to the contrary — in spite of seemingly OVERWHELMING doubts, conflicts, and missing evidence, scientists will insist on the FAITH that each little life form — from "simple" amoebae to the mind of man, just gradually "happened" without INTELLIGENCE, without DESIGN, without THOUGHT and PURPOSE! And that, dear friend) is FAITH! Oh, it's NOT the kind of faith the Bible talks of, to be sure, but it's exactly the SAME kind of "faith" leading religionists say THEY have when they claim you can't PROVE God exists (God says YOU CAN!) but must "accept it on faith." You have to finally realize evolution is a RELIGION! It is decidedly NOT scientific! Everything in scientific DISCOVERY — the practical, measurable, provable, demonstrable EXPERIMENTS and FACTS of science — DISPROVES evolution throws DOUBTS and CONFUSION into the evolutionary way of things. But evolutionists are persistent! Like the amoeba — they're patient. They hope that "someday" a magical breakthrough may occur. Meanwhile, scientists may speculate, muse, ponder, and guess — but they can't create an amoeba! Not even the simplest PART of an amoeba. Not only can't they CREATE — but they can't seem to UNDERSTAND the PRESENT creation!
Multiplication Through Division
The strangest process of all is the reproduction of amoebae. Just HOW do they reproduce — what with only a shapeless, blob-like form, no discernible body "parts" as such, except as already described — and no reproductive organs? Well — it seems that to reproduce, they must first reach a certain "critical size," which seems to cause them to DIVIDE INTO TWO amoebae! Some of you have no doubt watched this incredible process through a microscope. The amoeba will round up, and then gradually constrict in the middle, right through the nucleus, just as if some unseen hand were tightening a corset to unbearable restriction. Then, just as if one fried egg had, all by itself, so constricted its middle that the yolk parted, flowed to the approximate center of each half of the remaining white of the egg, and appeared to be two eggs, so the amoeba splits into TWO living cells. Just how does an amoeba reach critical size? What determines that size? Let's ask protozoologists. "Apparently we must still confess ignorance of the answer to this vital problem" says Reginald D. Manwell, on page 188 of his book, Introduction to Protozoology. The little amoeba divides in about half an hour. Simple. Only trouble is — scientists do not understand it — and admit they cannot! "It must be remembered that the division of one cell into two cells is really not as simple as it appears at the outset, but instead involves complex processes that are not yet completely understood by man. For one thing no amoeba can reproduce without a nucleus, for in the nucleus is the hereditary material known as chromatin, which determines exactly what the individual is going to be" (Zoology, by Max N. Silvernale, page 42). The amoeba, then, is FAR from simple! The idea of its "simplicity" is advanced by evolutionists to preserve the "simple to complex" idea — a vital part of evolutionary thought. But in the tiny Amoeba proteus are 500 or more chromosomes. These chromosomes, in the nucleus of the little organism, have to do with the totally mysterious process of reproduction and, equally mysteriously, somehow preserve the PATTERN of the exact makeup, size, appearance, shape, and function of each "daughter" cell as it "splits off." Actually, it is impossible to label one amoeba a parent and the other the offspring — since one "parent" becomes TWO EQUAL bodies, sharing fifty-fifty in the nucleus and the "protoplasm." In watching the division of a cell into TWO cells — you would notice that the amoeba rounds up into a more compact ball — bringing up its pseudopodia into very short, stubby form all over its body. Then the cell begins to elongate, constricting more and more in the middle. The fluid-like blob then begins to flow in opposite directions, tugging apart, as it were, and finally, the two cells break apart, and "crawl" away, beginning individual lives! But what FORCE causes this? There is no MIND there — no body, or limbs. Only a "simple" process — we're sometimes told. But if it's so "simple," why, then, are scientists still so PERPLEXED by it all?! They still don't know WHAT triggers the cell division. Scientists have studied the reproduction of amoebae by the hundreds and hundreds of hours — yet must still admit they are a MYSTERY! They can tell you what they "look like" and try to give names (usually erroneous, or inaccurate) to their various parts, and tell you WHAT they do. But as to WHY they are; where they came from; what control their processes; science must admit it does not know. In one experiment, a scientist noted an apparent cyclical pattern in the reproduction of amoebae. "An unexpected and rather surprising discovery was that division, in at least some species of amoeba, is a cyclical matter and may be related to the time of day..." (Introduction to Protozoology, Reginald D. Manwell, page 307).
Regarding response to heat, light and other stimuli, here are some startling discoveries: "Amoeba can sense the presence of prey at some distance and move purposefully toward it, or can respond to an irritating stimulus, such as certain kinds of light and reverse its direction." (The Marvelous Animals — An Introduction to the Protozoa, Helena Curtis, page 15). "If the light is suddenly shone directly on the amoeba, it draws itself together in shock and will even extrude its half-eaten food" (ibid., page 79). The amoeba has no eyes. Yet a sudden, sharp light increase shocks an amoeba, almost like a bright light momentarily blinds a person. Other experiments show that the amoeba is sensitive to various colors of light. That is, there would be one response to blue light, and another to red! And every part of the amoeba's body appears to be equally sensitive. The amoeba is sensitive to heat also. If one side of an amoeba is heated, it reacts in the same negative way as it would to chemicals or to a mechanical shock. Ordinarily an amoeba prefers to work in the dark, and when a strong white light is suddenly thrown on a moving amoeba it comes to rest immediately. Experiments have shown that an amoeba is very sensitive to changes in the chemical composition of the water surrounding it. The amoeba tends to move away whenever it comes to a region in which the water differs even slightly from that to which it is accustomed. Some scientists believe that it is by certain chemical stimuli that the amoeba can tell food particles from inedible bits of debris.
ALIVE The World Over
Amoebae have been found in tepid thermal springs with a temperature of 24-36° C., or about 93-96° F. Other experiments found that "internal freezing kills the amoeba, although if the ice is prevented from forming, a temperature as low as -5° C. [about 23° -F.] brings about no visible damage to the organism" ( Protozoology, by Richard R. Kudo, page 22). Certain "social amoebae" even use a chemical substance called "acrasin" to relay messages to other amoebae. In one experiment, a colony of amoebae were separated individually a short distance apart. It was found that one amoeba immediately rose to lead the group back together. This leader secreted a chemical called "acrasin," to which all the other amoebae were very sensitive. Stimulated to action, the other amoebae began to secrete the same substance and started their long trek toward their leader! Can you imagine — a whole army of amoebae??? Exactly why the amoebae came together in this manner was not explained. However, the group formation was connected with their cyclical reproductive process. Let's look at more of their admissions about the amoeba. "Handicapped though it is, this amazing little animal can carry on all of the vital life processes that are common to even the higher animals. "The involved behavior of the amoeba is exceedingly hard to explain in view of its lack of specialization. The reactions [to stimuli] display a remarkable sensitivity that can only be explained in a very unsatisfactory manner by saying that its behavior is the result of the irritability of protoplasma" (Zoology, by Max N. Silvernale, pages 39 and 42). It's like saying the train moves because of the engine — without explaining the engine! And more admissions on the mysterious amoeba. "The Amoeba crawls about in search of food. To move about is doing work. We all know work cannot be done without a source of energy. This is as true for the tiny Amoeba as for the biggest steam engine... If we understood this process in all its details, the mysteries of life would be solved! We are still very far from this" (About Biology, Karl Von Frisch, page 9). Further showing the amoeba's complexity, another author says, "The amoeba appears to be about the simplest possible living animal an independent cell with nucleus and cytoplasm but no permanent organelles. Despite its seeming simplicity it can move, capture, digest, and assimilate complex food, egest indigestible residues, respire, produce secretions and excretions, respond to changes [stimuli] of various kinds in both its internal and external environment, grow, and reproduce itself in kind" (General Zoology, by Tracy J. Storer & Robert L Usinger, page 286). Here are more specific admissions scientists themselves wonder about.
The Complex Amoeba — No Simple Creature
"Amoeba, they suppose, stands at one end of the evolutionary ladder and man at the other. The Sarcodina, of which the amoeba has become the most familiar example (although by no means the most typical) are often presented as interesting chiefly because of their assumed primitiveness. Yet the amoeba, seemingly so simple in its organization is highly complex. It has its nucleus and constituent chromosomes, its contractile vacuole, its mitochondria, and frequently a rather complicated life history" (Introduction to Protozoology, by Reginald D. Manwell, page 297). The same author states earlier in his book, "Even amoeba is far from simple as we have seen; and as more refined techniques are developed for the study of minute structure, its complexities seem steadily to increase! ( Ibid, page 145.) The more scientists learn, the more they find they don't know! A common expression used to indicate the diversity of the scale of life is the phrase "amoeba to man," "In fact, however, the amoeba is a highly developed organism, which is almost as much more complex than the simplest organisms as man is more complex than amoeba" (Biology, edit. by Samuel Rapport & Hellen Wright, page 205). So now you see that, far from being the basic "beginnings" of "simple," single-celled life — a mainstay in the evolutionary scheme of things — amoebae are terribly complex! Still, they are supposed to have EVOLVED! They are supposed to be remnants of YOUR OWN ANCESTORS! Right here — you should realize a basic truth. The closer you look into creation, whether living things, or anything material, the more flawless perfection, organization, harmony, complexity, beauty and DESIGN you see! The CLOSER you look at anything MAN does — including his theories about his own origin, or anything his hands make, the more disorder, imperfection, flaws, mistakes, inadequacies, and randomness you see. If you possess a fairly powerful magnifying glass — you can illustrate that point by placing it over one of the color pictures in this article. You will see that color printing is done by a series of little dots, and that the closer you look at the picture, the less clearly defined it is — the more imperfections you will see. No, there's nothing "simple" about an amoeba — nothing. WHERE did they come from? HOW could such a fantastically adaptable, resilient, sensitive, active little organism have "evolved" GRADUALLY? Yet, scientists cling to their faith. And in this, they must be admired — just as much as any adherent to superstition must be patronized — and each person must recognize the inherent "right" of each other person to his beliefs — so it must be recognized that each scientist has the RIGHT to his belief; his faith. Because that's what evolution truly is. It is a kind of RELIGION — a new DOGMA — a FAITH which is NOT proved; which CANNOT be proved. But, in truth, many evolutionists have gone the full circle. They have come back to the FACT that creation is IMPOSSIBLE without some special "MIRACULOUS" occurrences. They simply call these "leaps" or other mindless, purposeless names. But at all costs, most people wish to reject the truth of the God of the Bible! Because you see, that God tells you HOW TO LIVE — He reveals WHY YOU'RE HERE — and tells you WHERE YOU'RE GOING! Unfortunately, those precious truths are rejected by most men today — just as they were rejected when Jesus Christ of Nazareth brought the truth about tomorrow's world.