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Compendium of World History - Volume 2
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Compendium of World History - Volume 2
Herman L Hoeh   
Church of God

Born: 1928
Died: November 24, 2004
Ambassador College: 1947
Ordained: December 20, 1952
Office: Evangelist

Chapter XVIII:


   Never has there been an age like this one. An avalanche of scientific information is pouring down upon specialist and layman alike.
   No one is able to keep up with the torrent of new knowledge.
   But is man the wiser for all this new knowledge?
   Are the latest conclusions of geology, of archaeology, or history any nearer the truth? Or are we being crushed by the sheer weight of new ignorance — new superstitions, this time garbed in the respectable clothes of Scientific Knowledge?


   It would seem this ought to be the wisest, most knowledgeable generation that has ever lived. But it is not!
   And there is a reason.
   Never in the history of the world have so many been speculating so much. Speculation, hypothesizing, intellectual guessing have become the lifeblood of the sciences — especially the social sciences. The result is an age typified by a chaos of ideas.
   Professor Mendenhall labels the present confused state of human knowledge thus: it "may with perhaps less courtesy but more accuracy be called chaos" ("Biblical History in Transition").
   The reason? Only those facts which fit an hypothesis are concerned! The purpose of hypothesis is not eternal truth — only intellectual curiosity to see whether the hypothesis be so!
   Is it any wonder that the scholarly world is in confusion? That the genuine history of man has been rejected and forgotten? That Scripture is labeled "unscientific" and "myth"?
   This second volume of the "Compendium" is devoted to that forgotten history of man.


   Can the facts of geology, of archaeology, of human history and the Bible be reconciled? Not if the method of study now in vogue in the educational world is used! Crowning the heap of discarded theories with another hypothesis will not resolve the problems.
   Yet a solution is possible. The facts of geology, of archaeology, of human history and the Bible are reconcilable. It is the hypotheses and theories of Science and Theology that are not! No one, caught up in the vicious cycle of intellectual guessing, finds it easy to divorce facts from hypotheses.
   But once one is willing to do that, the gnawing questions of science and history find answers.
   Why haven't men been willing to face facts, and forget hypothesizing? The answer is simple. Facts do not automatically organize themselves into clear and unmistakable answers.
   There is always the need of some kind of yardstick, some standard, to guide man in organizing the myriads of facts lying mutely before him. A geological stratum by itself does not answer when? or why? A potsherd by itself does not reveal who? or when? Even a written record by itself often fails to convey motive, proof of accuracy, or history of transmission.
   Scholars and scientists must of necessity resort to some external framework or yardstick by which the recovered facts may be judged. Only two choices are available — hypothesis or Divine Revelation.
   The educated world has chosen the former. It has, without proof, rejected the latter. Hypotheses appeal to human vanity, to intellectual curiosity, to the desire to hear of something new. Divine Revelation requires acknowledgement of a Higher Power, the subjection of human reason to the revealed Mind of the Creator. But human reason revels in its own superiority. By nature it opposes and exalts itself against Higher Authority.
   No wonder educators take for granted that the facts of geology, of archaeology, or human history contradict the Bible.
   Not until human beings are willing to acknowledge God, to acknowledge His Authority, His Revelation, will they ever come to a satisfactory — and satisfying — explanation of Man and the Universe.
   Not until human reason is conquered will the scholarly world enjoy the privilege of understanding the meaning of geology, of archaeology, of history and the Bible.


   Scientific and historical journals are filled with "learned" conflicts and controversies. These conflicts are not due to a lack of factual material. There are often "too many" facts.
   Controversies in philosophy, in science, in education are the direct result of hypothesizing. Theories and hypotheses by their very nature breed controversy. What is needed is a true view of the factual material already available. Present material is more than sufficient to solve every one of the primary questions regarding Man, his origin in time, and the record of his experiences.
   Why don't today's educators know the answers to these problems? Because they have discarded the key that would unlock the answers. That key is God's revelation of essential knowledge for man — the Bible. But men don't want God telling them anything authoritatively. They therefore refuse even to test whether the Bible is authoritative.
   It's time we examined the facts of science. Examined, in brief outline, the beginnings of human society — the relationship of geology and archaeology to human history and the Bible. It is possible, if we divorce theory from the facts, to discover the answers to every one of the following basic questions:
   Do the facts of geology confirm the Bible? Was the earth inhabited before the creation of man — before creation week recorded in Genesis 1?
   Where in geologic strata, does Creation Week of Genesis 1 occur? Is the geographical description of the Garden of Eden and of the great river that went out of it toward the east (Gen. 2:10) confirmed by geology?
   What happened to the earth as a result of the sin of Cain?
   Why did his descendants wander over the earth, hunting instead of farming?
   What is the relationship between pre-Flood Man and fossil Man? What does archaeology reveal about the first sixteen centuries of human existence? Where do the so-called "Ice Ages" fit in Bible history? Why did so many forms of animal and human life disappear at the close of the geologic period labeled "Pleistocene" by scientists?
   Is this the Biblical Flood?
   Every one of these questions has an answer. The answers are so plain even a child can understand them — if unprejudiced. The factual material has already been recorded for us by generations of historians, scientists and archaeologists. Yet they don't understand what they have discovered. They view everything from the evolutionary standpoint. It has simply never occurred to them that what they uncovered confirmed the Bible, and not evolution!


   Most people do not know how a geologist reaches his conclusions. A geologist, of course, is one who makes a study of earth history. He investigates the rock structure of the surface of the earth. Let's accompany a geologist on one of his field trips.
   A geologist working in the field discovers strata of sandstone, or limestone, or silt. Perhaps in them are fossils. He wants to know when the strata were deposited. How does he decide? The answer is: HE DOESN'T!
   Being a very careful man — a scientific man — he will go to a paleontologist for the answer. And who is a paleontologist? He is a scientist who makes a special study of fossils. It is his function to explain to the geologist the apparent age of the fossils.
   And how does the paleontologist know the apparent age of the fossils? From geology? No! How can he learn it from geology when even the geologist does not know the age of fossil strata until he goes to the paleontologist who studies the fossils!! Then how does the paleontologist discover how old fossils are?
   Simple! He turns to the evolution theory!
   Life, the paleontologist tells the geologist, developed from the very simplest cell into the varied complex creatures that inhabit the earth today. "But what is the age of the fossils?" asks the geologist.
   "Let me explain that," replies the paleontologist. "Evolution is a very slow process. It may take millions of years for one species of life to slowly develop into another totally different species. The age of your strata are determined by how long we think it took that particular species of fossils to develop. of course, we paleontologists don't all agree on these details. You might get a different answer from another paleontologist! After all, even though we all believe evolution is a fact, we do not know exactly how it occurs — or even the exact order in which various species of life evolved."
   And that, in simple language, is what happens!
   The age of the fossils is guessed at by the paleontologist. The source of his knowledge (or misknowledge) is not geology, but the evolution theory. He takes it for granted. He assumes the theory is a fact — or reasons as if it were a fact. The geologist then deduces the age of the strata from the assumed age of the fossils.


   All too often the geologist discovers that, according to the assumed age of the fossils, "younger strata" are below "older strata" — in the wrong order — reversed! "Oh, that's all right," the paleontologist will conclude. "just consider that the strata were laid in the right order and that later a fracture in the earth's crust occurred which placed them in the wrong order."
   "But there was no fracture or fault line in the deposits. The strata were laid down exactly as I found them."
   "Don't let that concern you," the paleontologist might tell the geologist. "You are at liberty to insert fracture or fault lines where there were none, and to remove them where you plainly saw them. After all, the evolution theory explains what happened even if you did not find the evidence!"
   That is THE WAY evolutionary science is practiced.
   This illustration was in fact presented in a public lecture in one of the most famous institutions of higher learning in Southern California.
   The geologist giving the lecture added this word of advice: "It is better not to go to different paleontologists. Otherwise there will be no consistency in the dating of fossils. It is much better to consult the same paleontologist, for then, at least, one will be CONSISTENT IN HIS ERROR!"
   It is this kind of foolish scientific thinking — if it can be called thinking — that masquerades as intellectual. This is the kind of thinking that has been used to ridicule and reject the authority of Scripture.
   This is the trunk of the evolutionary tree. Once it is chopped down all the twiggy side arguments fall with it!
   Evolution is based on deceptive, circular reasoning. It is an unproved and unprovable hypothesis. It is made to seem rational by a fantastic use of hundreds of millions — even billions — of years. But no evolving fossil — bridging the gaps from one Genesis kind to another — has ever been found. No half-evolved living species, has ever been seen by man. God-ordained varieties of each kind — yes! But no evolution from one Genesis kind to another!
   It is time we opened our eyes to the falsehoods in modern education.
   Naturally, geologists have found many important and true facts. Once we divorce the facts from the theories and hypotheses, true earth history becomes plain. Now take a look at the facts as they are found. See how they fit the Bible account.


   First, look at the recent astounding discoveries of geology. They are of such magnitude as to revolutionize the whole field of scientific studies. They tell an incredible story.
   Geologists, like all scientists, are noted for the care which they take in exact observations and measurements — though in theorizing they know no bounds to their wildest speculations.
   After decades of careful firsthand observation, geologists came to recognize a definite, worldwide break in the geological strata. They didn't understand its meaning. They never looked into the Bible to see if an answer were there.
   The strata below the break revealed a world entirely different from the one we see around us today. Nowhere in the lower strata does one find fossil Man, or remains warm-blooded creatures so characteristic of our world. Missing, too, are the angiosperms — plants having their seeds enclosed in an ovary.
   Evolutionary geologists immediately jumped to the conclusion that this was a "proof" of evolution. They couldn't have been more mistaken.
   Above the break, the strata reveal forms of life vividly described in Genesis 1. There are human remains, many varieties of mammals, birds and flowering trees. Why the sudden appearance of new kinds of life? What is the meaning of this break in the geological horizon? Is it mentioned in the Bible?
   Most scientists and historians never looked to see. The theologians never stopped to investigate. But the facts are plain for all to see. There has been no past evolution of living matter.


   Genesis 1 has been woefully misunderstood. "Creation Week" is not the record of the original creation of matter, but an account of re-creation!
   The first chapter of Genesis contains two distinct accounts.
   The first two verses are a brief account of the creation of matter and physical energy — of a beautiful earth fit for habitation — "in the beginning." The second account is about the work of re-creation following a frightful catastrophe which befell the first world. That catastrophe is briefly summarized in verse 2 of Genesis 1. These verses, according to the original inspired Hebrew text, read: "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth had become without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep."
   God created the world fit for habitation. It was not created a waste. Isaiah 45:18 reveals: "... God himself that formed the earth ... he created it not in vain (the original Hebrew is the same as in Genesis 1:2 — meaning "not a waste"), he formed it to be inhabited."
   The first or pre-Adamic creation was turned into a chaotic wreck. Virtually all life perished. (Psalm 104: 28-29.) The whole face of the earth was covered with water.
   The Biblical record of Genesis 1:2 is confirmed by the enigmatic break which scientists have found in the geological strata. The strata below the break are the remains of the pre-Adamic world!


   For scores of years geologists assumed the ocean floors were the quiet resting places of thousands of feet of mud and slime. Then came the shocking truth. Those thousands of feet of mud were not there. The geologists could hardly believe their eyes.
   An immense catastrophe had befallen the earth.
   Everywhere men sent down into the oceans their coring devices they discovered the ocean depths had suffered a tremendous volcanic upheaval.
   To heighten the shock of the discovery, scientists found the catastrophe had struck the ocean depths at the same moment in geological history that it had struck the land masses. On land it had been recognized as a worldwide break in the geological strata. To this upheaval geologists assign the label "Cretaceous" — meaning "chalky" — because of the nature of the chalky deposits in England where the strata were first studied.
   Geologists thought they would find strata in the sea below the so-called "Cretaceous" deposits — just as they find them on the continents. They didn't. Reported Ericson and Wollin: "... no sediment older than Upper Cretaceous time has been found in the ocean basins because there is none there to find" ("The Deep and the Past", p. 266).
   None to find? of course! On the ocean floors the world before man has been buried under tremendous volcanic eruptions.
   The authors continue:
   "The paleontological and geophysical evidence tells in clear enough language that some sort of drastic reorganization of the floors of the oceans must have taken place toward the end of the Lower Cretaceous Period .... We can be sure (that is usually a sure sign that scholars, historians, and scientists are guessing) that this volcanic transformation did not take place within the span of a few years; if it had, all marine life would have come to a sudden end as a gargantuan bouillabaisse of boiled fish. To avoid catastrophe of this sort, we need only be more liberal with time; we have plenty of it at our disposal ....
   "Whence came the energy and why should its effect have been concentrated at the beginning of the Upper Cretaceous?" (Pages 267-268.)
   Read that astounding quote again!
   The facts are plain! There was a singular catastrophe which virtually ended all life between what geologists call the "Lower" and "Upper Cretaceous" — that is, the dividing line between the world before Adam and the world since the creation of man.
   Geologists throw around time as though it were a mere toy! By giving themselves time enough they hope to alleviate the necessity of accepting the truth of Genesis 1:2.


   To continue picking up the highlights of geology which confirm the Biblical record —
   The second chapter of Genesis, verses 8 to 15, preserves a remarkable account of the geography of the land of Eden where Man first dwelt. Many Scripture passages indicate it was the land of Palestine, with the Garden lying eastward in the vicinity of Jerusalem. Josephus, the Jewish historian, confirms this picture in "Antiquities of the Jews," I, i, 3.
   In Eden sprang forth a vast stream of water that flowed eastward through the Garden. It divided into four parts, three of which flowed toward the north and east — the other southward.
   Where, in geological history, would one find this geographical description of the river system of Palestine and the environs of Jerusalem?
   In the strata that geologists label "Upper Cretaceous"! In Palestine it is the next geological event which follows the geological break previously referred to. Jewish geologists, unaware of what they have discovered, have even presented a simple sketch of this astounding evidence. On page 35 of E. A. Speiser's "At the Dawn of Civilization" is a geologic map of Palestine in the so-called "Upper Cretaceous." Immediately to the east of Jerusalem may be seen in outline the area through which the waters from the Garden flowed. The present Jordan Valley and Dead Sea were not then formed.
   With these geological points established in brief, it is not difficult to place the subsequent geological and archaeological deposits in their Biblical background.
   The first few centuries of human life on earth are consequently parallel with the "Upper Cretaceous" and "Tertiary" deposits of geological science. These deposits are of course dated by evolutionary scientists as millions of years old. Time, to them, means nothing. Geologists have no means of dating accurately these deposits. They assume their extreme antiquity because they first assumed the evolutionary hypothesis to be a fact!
   The Evolutionary hypothesis is not a fact. It has never been proven and by its very nature can never be proven. Once evolution is recognized for what it is — a mere figment of human imagination — the whole geological timetable collapses!


   Cain is an important figure in theology. He is equally important to history and geology. Geology? Indeed! As a result of the sin of Cain the entire history of human society — and the earth's surface — changed. Notice the Biblical record: "And now art thou cursed from the earth ... when thou tillest the ground" — Cain, says Josephus, sought to gain his livelihood by farming methods which depleted the soil — "It shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive (or wanderer) and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth" (Gen. 4:11-12).
   God put a stop to Cain's way — the way of getting. If Cain and his heirs had been allowed to continue their agricultural pursuits, soils all over the world would long ago have been rendered unfit for cultivation. Human life might well have been snuffed out by mass starvation.
   The geological record tells us what God did to save the soil from utter depletion. Mountain chains arose where there were none before. Seas dried up. The balmy semi-tropical climate of the world rapidly shifted into torrid and frigid zones. Wherever Cain wandered his agricultural pursuits came to naught. When it should have rained, the weather turned dry. Just as he was about to reap the ripening crop, a storm blew in. Nothing turned out right. Cain was forced to turn to hunting and gathering the sparse wild fruits and berries. He and the generations who followed him eked out a wretched living. All this is recorded in geology and archaeology.
   In the so-called "Tertiary" geological deposits, which follow the "Upper Cretaceous," immense surface changes are recorded. The climate began to turn cooler. Desert regions developed in the wake of mountain building. Pluvial and arid periods fluctuated.
   "Tertiary" deposits are overlain by what geologists call "Quarternary" or "Pleistocene" deposits. The climate in the northern hemisphere became even colder. Vast snowfalls engulfed the regions now labeled Canada and Europe on our maps. The Arctic zone expanded. Fluctuations in sea level occurred. All along the continental shore lines the changing beach levels left their mark. Many may still be seen today. Geologists mislabel this pre-Flood period "Ice Ages."
   This period witnessed the spread of human habitation around the world. Giants appeared according to Genesis. Fossil remains of giant human beings of this period have been found by geologists. This is the time of so-called "Paleolithic Man," or "Neanderthal Man" and the "Mousterian Culture," of the mammoth and reindeer hunters of the "Upper Paleolithic." Their culture exactly fits the curse that befell Cain. Cain and his descendants became wanderers and vagabonds over the face of their earth. They were reduced to hunting and gathering because the soil would not yield normal crops. These ancient changes in the weather are a type of the changes of the weather now beginning to hit the earth in this twentieth century!
   With an increase in human population over the centuries, Cain saw a way around his punishment. He reasoned that if he could monopolize the salt trade, he could become rich. Every human being needs salt to live. He headed for the region of the Dead Sea. There he built an important city and surrounded it with walls. Josephus describes it in detail. The Bible refers to it as the city of Enoch, which Cain built and named in honor of his son (Gen. 4:17). Archaeologists have found it — the first walled city built before the Flood. On its site was later built the post-Flood city of Jericho. The British archaeologist Miss Kenyon has devoted much time and patience to the excavation of this important discovery (see her book Digging Up Jericho).
   At Jericho and all over the eastern Mediterranean lands rapid changes in culture developed. Population increased. Many village sites dot the countryside. Intermarriage of races was a consequence of the family of Cain settling among the family of Seth in the Middle East. Numerous fossil skeletons attest to this fact mentioned in Gen. 6:1-2.
   The complete story of culture changes before the Flood may be easily pieced together from Emmanuel Anati's "Palestine Before the Hebrews," F. C. Hibben's "Prehistoric Man in Europe" and Speiser's afore-quoted book. "The Bible and the Ancient Near East" provides the proper sequence of cultures in its fourth chapter, "The Archaeology of Palestine," by G. E. Wright. These and other studies make it clear that the Flood occurred at the end of the geological epoch called the "Pleistocene." The "Recent" which follows geologically is the post-Flood world. This event is also marked in geological records by the sudden disappearance of many forms of animal life — especially the mammoths.


   In archaeological parlance the pre-Flood world in the Middle East drew to a close with the "Natufian," the "Tahunian," pre-pottery and pottery Neolithic and related cultures.
   As this dissertation is being written, important new discoveries in Anatolia and Southeast Europe are adding to our knowledge of so-called "Neolithic" culture just prior to the Flood. Already archaeologists are aware that their designation "Neolithic" is a misnomer. It was not a complex of cultures based on polished stone without metals. Everywhere copper artifacts are, turning up in the Middle East — in Persia, in Greece and along the Danube, in Anatolia and the fringes of Mesopotamian plains. Scripture makes plain that the knowledge and use of copper alloys and iron characterized the closing stages of the pre-Flood world (see Genesis 4:22).
   These so-called Early Neolithic cultures are mistakenly dated (by radio-carbon) to the last half of the sixth millennium and to the fifth. Radio-carbon dates that are earlier than the 4300's 300 B.C. generally belong to Pre-Flood societies. Those sites and artifacts dated by archaeologists to the 4300's 300 and later appear in every known instance to be of the post-Flood world. This indicates that radio-carbon dates for the time of the Flood are about 2000 300 years off!
   The immediate post-Flood world is, in Mesopotamia and Palestine, labeled by archeologists as a transitional "Neolithic-Chalcolithic" culture stage. It is rather a senseless term! The term is meant to imply a general but limited use of metal. In short order Palestinian society developed into a so-called "Early Chaleolithic" period.
   Wherever these two cultural phases appear in the Middle East, there is evidence of a break with the past. The world population suddenly appears to have shrunk to almost nothing. Migrations are on miniature scale. Areas of human habitation are limited, compared with the evidences of tremendous population in the Early Neolithic which ended in the Flood.
   Of the pre-Flood world we have this startling quote from Anati in "Palestine Before the Hebrews": "... the density of population must have been then one of the greatest in Palestine. Frequently the distance from one settled spot to another is no more than a thousand feet" (p. 231).
   Post-Flood Palestine was, by contrast, sparsely settled. Human habitation, springing out of Syria and Mesopotamia, was limited in the Early Chalcolithic to sites along the coast, in the mountains and along the Jordan plain. An increase in population is noted in the succeeding cultural phase — the Ghassulian of archaeological parlance. This is the period in which Abraham appeared in Palestine. Abraham generally made southern Palestine, headquarters. Its chief town was Beersheba. It is not surprising that during this period Beersheba was the cultural center of Palestine, rather than the more populous north. It was at Beersheba that the remains of the earliest known domesticated horse was found by archaeologists ("Palestine before the Hebrews", p. 241). Abraham's descendants ever since have been famous breeders of horses.
   The lush Jordan Valley became desolate during the Ghassulian. When Tell el-Ghassul was excavated by the Pontifical Institute immense quantities of ash were found. It was immediately recognized as the time of the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah. Later, archaeologists — confronted with this plain evidence of Scripture — rejected the identification and placed the Ghassulian culture 1500 years too early!
   And with that the evidence of geology and archaeology missing from Volume I is completed. Geology, archaeology, history and the Bible stand reconciled.



   The lengths of reigns assigned to the rulers of Dynasties I and II of Kish are clearly not the true lengths of reign. They are all too long. Yet they cannot be explained merely by scribal errors. The figures are intentionally long.
   The Babylonian priestly scribes at an early period intentionally lengthened the original figures to make Babylon excessively ancient. The question is: Can the true lengths of reign still be deduced from the figures now preserved? The answer is Yes!
   What the Babylonians did was very clever. To preserve the original figures which they had in their possession — and yet hide them — they resorted to a clever mathematical trick.
   To understand, let's look at the Sumerian and Babylonian method of numbering. Today we are familiar with the use of decimals — multiples of ten. But we are generally unfamiliar with the Babylonian use of multiples of sixes and sixties. Samuel Kramer explains it for laymen in "The Sumerians, Their History, Culture and Character," p. 92. To express the number 60, for example, the Sumerians used a particular symbol. But to express 600 they used another symbol, not 10 x 60. To express 3,600, they used another symbol, not 6 x 600.
   Now what the clever priest-kings did was this: They took for example, a man whose length of reign was 14 years and altered the figures the following way. They multiplied the 4, the first figure to the left of the decimal point by 60. The result was 240. Then they multiplied the 1, the second figure to the left of the decimal point by 600. The result was 1 x 600 + 4 x 60 = 840. By working back from the expanded figures now preserved, it is possible to determine the real lengths of reigns of the priest-kings of Kish who were elected to the office. The Dynasty, it should be noted, is placed before that of Erech. It indicates that events which led to the establishment of Nimrod's political government in 2254, began two years earlier in a religious revolt that expressed itself in the building of the Tower of Babel in 2256.
Rulers of Dynasty Length of Calculation Actual Reign
II of Kish — Reign from of True
Priest-Kings King List Reign

Su- more than 0 x 600 + 3 x 60 = 3 yrs. + mos.
201, not
more than

Dadasig more than 2 x 600 + 9 x 60 = 29 yrs. + mos
1785, not
more than

Mamagal 420 0 x 600 + 7 x 60 = 7 yrs.

Kalbum, son of 132 0 x 600 + 2 x 60 = 2 yrs. + mos

Tuge 360 0 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 6 yrs.

Mennumna 180 0 x 600 + 3 x 60 = 3 yrs.

Lugalmu 420 0 x 600 + 7 x 60 = 7 yrs.

Ibbi-Ea 290 0 x 600 + 4 x 60 = 4 yrs. + mos.
   Eight kings are said to have reigned 3792 years; the correct total is given in the Document L1 (see p. 97 of Jacobsen's "Sumerian King List"). For all other figures, see pp. 328-329 of S. N. Kramer's, "The Sumerians, their History, Culture and Character."
Rulers of Dynasty II Actual Length Dates of
of Kish of Reign Reign

Su- 3 1809-1806

Dadasig 29 1806-1777

Mamagal 7 1777-1770

Kalbum, son of Mamagal. 2 1770-1768

Tuge 6 1768-1762

Mennumna 3 1762-1759

Lugalmu 7 1759-1752

Ibbi-Ea 4 1752-1748

Rulers of Dynasty Length of Calculation Actual Reign
I of Kish — Reign from of True
Priest-Kings King List Reign

Gaur 1200 2 x 600 + 0 x 60 = 20 yrs.

Gulla-Nidaba-annapad 960 1 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 16 yrs.

Pala-kinatim 900 1 x 600 + 5 x 60 = 15 yrs.

and Bahina 6960 1 x 3600 + 5 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 156 yrs.

Buanum 840 1 x 600 + 4 x 60 = 14 yrs.

Kalibum 960 1 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 16 yrs.

Galumum 840 1 x 600 + 4 x 60 = 14 yrs.

Zukakip 900 1 x 600 + 5 x 60 = 15 yrs.

Atab 600 1 x 600 + 0 x 60 = 10 yrs.

Mashda 840 1 x 600 + 4 x 60 = 14 yrs.

Arurim, son of 720 1 x 600 + 2 x 60 = 12 yrs.

Etana, the shep- 1560 2 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 26 yrs.
herd, who ascended
to heaven, who

Balih 400 0 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 6 yrs.+ mos.

Enmenunna 660 1 x 600 + 1 x 60 = 11 yrs.

Melan-Kish, son of 900 1 x 600 + 5 x 60 = 15 yrs.

Barsalnunna, son 1200 2 x 600 + 0 x 60 = 20 yrs.
of Enmenunna.

Meszemug, son 140 0 x 600 + 2 x 60 = 2 yrs.+ mos.
of Barsalnunna.

Tizkar, son of 305 0 x 600 + 5 x 60 = 5 yrs.+ mos.

Ilku 900 1 x 600 + 3 x 60 = 15 yrs.

Iltasadum 1200 2 x 600 + 0 x 60 = 20 yrs.

Enmebaraggesi, 900 1 x 600 + 5 x 60 = 15 yrs.
who smote the
weapons of the
land of Elam.

Agga, son of 625 1 x 600 + 0 x 60 = 10 yrs.+ mos.

"Twenty-three kings reigned 24,510 years."

Rulers of Dynasty I Actual Length Dates of
of Kish Priest-Kings of Reign Reign

Gaur 20 2256-2236
Reckoned from commencement
of building Tower of Babel

Gulla-Nidaba-annapad 16 2236-2220

Pala-kinatim 15 2220-2205

Nangishlishma and
Bahina 156 2205-2049

Buanum 14 2049-2035

Kalibum 16 2035-2019

Galumum 14 2019-2005

Zukakip 15 2005-1990

Atab 10 1990-1980

Mashda 14 1980-1966

Arurim, son of Mashda. 12 1966-1954

Etana, the shepherd. 26 1954-1928

Balih, son of Etana. 6 1928-1922

Enmenunna 11 1922-1911

Melan-Kish, son of 15 1911-1896

Barsalnunna, son of 20 1896-1876

Meszamug, son of Barsalnunna. 2 1876-1874

Tizkar, son of Meszamug. 5 1874-1869

Ilku 15 1869-1854

Iltasadum 20 1854-1834

Enmebaraggesi, who smote the 15 1834-1819
weapons of the land of Elam.

Agga, son of Enmebaraggesi. 10 1819-1809



   The following list of rulers is taken from "In the Country of the Blue Nile" by C. F. Rey, London, 1927 (Appendix A). It is exactly correct in the original archives. The dates are stated in years according to the Gregorian calendar. They begin in September — hence autumn to autumn reckoning. This list of rulers is as valuable as the Chinese Shoo King.

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Akbunas Saba I. Saba 55 1978-1923
is the Arabian Abd Shems,
son of Jerah (Yarab),
the son of Joktan.

2. Nakehte Kalnis. Kalnis 40 1923-1883
is Kahlan of Arabian
tradition, the son of
Abd Shems.

3. Kasiyope (queen) 19 1883-1864

4. Sabe I 15 1864-1849

5. Etiyopus I 56 1849-1793

6. Lakndun Nowarari 30 1793-1763

7. Tutimheb 20 1763-I743

8. Herhator I 20 1743-1723

9. Etiyopus II 30 1723-1693

10. Senuka I 17 1693-1676

11. Bonu I 8 1676-1668

12. Mumazes (queen) 4 1668-1664

13. Aruas, daughter of 7 months 1664

14. Amen Asro I 30 1664-1634

15. Ori (or Aram) II 30 1634-1604

16. Piori I 15 1604-1589

17. Amen Emhat I 40 1589-1549

18. Tsawi 15 1549-1534

19. Aktissanis 10 1534-1524

20. Mandes 17 1524-1507

21. Protawos 33 1507-1474

22. Amoy 21 1474-1453

23. Konsi Hendawi 5 1453-1448

24. Bonu II 2 1448-1446

25. Sebi III (Kefe) 15 1446-1431

26. Djagons 20 1431-1411

27. Senuka II 10 1411-1401

28. Angabo I (Zaka Laarwe) 50 1401-1351

29. Miamur 2 days 1351

30. Helena (queen) 11 1351-1340

31. Zagdur I 40 1340-1300

32. Her Hator II 30 1300-1270

33. Her Hator (Za Sagado) III 1 1270-1269

34. Akate (Za Sagado) IV 20 1269-1249

35. Titon Satiyo 10 1249-1239

36. Hermantu I 5 months 1239

37. Amen Emhat II 5 1239-1234

38. Konsab I 5 1234-1229

39. Sannib II 5 1229-1224

40. Sanuka III 5 1224-1219

41. Angabo II 40 1219-1179

42. Amen Astate 30 1179-1149

43. Herhor 16 1149-1133

44. Wiyankihi I 9 1133-1124

45. Pinotsem I 17 1124-1107

46. Pinotsem II 41 1107-1066

47. Massaherta 16 1066-1050

48. Ramenkoperm 14 1050-1036

49. Pinotsem III 7 1036-1029

50. Sabi IV 10 1029-1019

51. Tawasaya Dews 13 1019-1006

52. Makeda 31 1006- 975
   The year 975 is the year of death of Hatshepsowe, who is Makeda. Her daughter married Solomon, Their son, Menelik, was adopted by Makeda as her heir since she had no son of her own. Menelik thus was of the line of Sheba, of Joktan and Peleg — which explains the racial intermixture of the Ethiopian royalty.
   Fifty-two sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia before the advent of Mehelik I.

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Menelik I 25 975-950

2. Hanyon 1 950-949

3. Sera I (Tomai). This 26 949-923
is Zerah the Ethiopian —
here expressly
recorded by name in the
history of Abyssinia.

4. Amen Hotep Zagdur 31 923-892

5. Aksumay Ramissu 20 892-872

6. Awseyo Sera II 38 872-834

7. Tawasya II 21 834-813

8. Abralyus Wiyankihi II 32 813-781

9. Aksumay Warada Tsahay 23 781-758

10. Kashta Hanyon 13 758-745

11. Sabaka II 12 745-733

12. Nicauta Kandake (queen) 10 733-723

13. Tsawi Terhak Warada 49 723-674

14. Erda Amen Awseya, or 6 674-668
Urdemane of Assyrian
records of Assurbanipal

15. Gasiyo Eskikatir — 668

16. Nuatmeawn (Tanautamun) 4 668-664

17. Tomadyon Piyankihi III 12 664-652

18. Amen Asero 16 652-636

19. Piyankihi IV, or Awtet 34 636-602

20. Zaware Nebret Aspurta 41 602-561

21. Saifay Harsiataw II 12 561-549

22. Ramhay Nastossanan 4 549-535

23. Handu Wuha Abra 11 535-524

24. Safelya Sabakon 31 524-493

25. Agalbus Sepekos 22 493-471

26. Psmenit Waradanegash 21 471-450

27. Awseya Tarakos 12 450-438

28. Kanaz Psmis, son of 13 438-425
Awseya Tarakos

29. Apras 10 425-415

30. Kashta Walda Ahuhu 20 415-395

31. Elalion Taake 10 395-385

32. Atserk Amen III 10 385-375

33. Atserk Amen IV 10 375-365

34. Hadina (queen) 10 365-355

35. Atserk Amen V 10 355-345

36. Atserk Amen VI 10 345-335

37. Nikawla Kandake (queen) 10 335-325

38. Bassyo 7 325-318

39. Akawsis Kandake III 10 318-308

40. Arkamen II 10 308-298

41. Awtet Arawura 10 298-288

42. Kolas II (Kaletro) 10 288-278

43. Zawre Nebrat 16 278-262

44. Stiyo 14 262-248

45. Safay 13 248-235

46. Nikosis Kandake IV (queen) 10 235-225

47. Ramhay Arkamen IV 10 225-215

48. Feliya Hernekhit 15 215-200

49. Hende Awkerara 20 200-180

50. Agabu Baseheran 10 180-170

51. Sulay Kawswmenun 20 170-150

52. Messelme Kerarmer 8 150-142

53. Nagey Bsente 10 142-132

54. Etbenukewer 10 132-122

55. Safeliya Abramen 20 122-102

56. Sanay 10 102- 92

57. Awsena (queen) 11 92- 81

58. Dawit II 10 81- 71

59. Aglbul 8 71- 63

60. Bawawl 10 63- 53

61. Barawas 10 53- 43

62. Dinedad 10 43- 33

63. Amoy Mahasse 5 33- 28

64. Nicotnis Kandake V 10 28- 18

65. Nalke 5 18- 13

66. Luzay 12 13- 1

67. Bazen 17 B.C. 1- 17 A.D.

Before Christ 119 sovereigns reigned.
Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Sartu Tsenfa Assegd 21 17- 38

2. Akaptah Tsenfa Ared 8 38- 46

3. Horemtaku 2 46- 48

4. Garsemot Kandake VI. Jen 10 48- 58
Daraba, favourite of Queen
Garsemot Kandake, crowned by
Gabre Hawariat Kandake, had
made a pilgrimage to
Jerusalem according to the law
of Orit (the ancient law), and
on his return Philip the Apostle
taught him the gospel, and after
he had made him believe the
truth he sent him back.

5. Hatoza Bahr Asaged 28 58- 86

6. Mesenh Germasir 7 86- 93

7. Metwa Germa Asfar 9 93-102

8. Adgale II 10 102-112

9. Agba 1 112-113

10. Serada 16 113-129

11. Malis Alameda 4 129-133

12. Hakabe Nasohi Tsiyon 6 133-139

13. Hakli Sergway 12 139-151

14. Dedme Zaray 10 151-161

15. Awtet 2 161-163

16. Alaly Bagamay 7 163-170

17. Awadu Jan Asagad 30 170-200

18. Zagun Tsion Hegez 5 200-205

19. Rema Tsion Geza 3 205-208

20. Azegan Malbagad 7 208-215

21. Gafale Seb Asagad 1 215-216

22. Tsegay Beze Wark 4 216-220

23. Gaza Agdur 9 220-229

24. Agduba Asgwegwe 8 229-237

25. Dawiza 1 237-238

26. Wakana (queen) 2 days 238

27. Hadawz 4 months 238

28. Ailassan Sagal 3 238-241

29. Asfehi Asfeha 14 241-255

30. Atsgaba Seifa Arad 6 255-261

31. Ayba 17 261-278

32. Tsaham Laknduga 9 278-287

33. Tsegab 10 287-297

34. Tazer 10 297-307

35. Ahywa Sofya (queen) 7 307-314
1. Ahywa. Her regnal name
was Sofya, and she was
the mother of Abreha Atsbeha.

2. Abreha Atsbeha, reigned 26 314-340
partly with his mother.

3. Atsbeha, alone. 12 340-352

4. Asfeh Dalz 7 352-359

5. Sahle 14 359-373

6. Arfed Gebra Maskal 4 373-377

7. Adhana I (queen) 5 377-382

8. Riti 1 382-383

9. Asfeh II 1 383-384

10. Atsbeha II 5 384-389

11. Amey 15 389-404

12. Abreha II 7 months 404

13. Ilassahl 2 months 404

14. Elagabaz I 2 404-406

15. Suhal 4 406-410

16. Abreha III 10 410-420

17. Adhana II (queen) 6 420-426

18. Yoab 10 426-436

19. Tsaham I 2 436-438

20. Amey II 1 438-439

21. Sahle Ahzob 2 439-441

22. Tsebah Mahana Kristos 3 441-444

23. Tsaham II 2 444-446

24. Elagabaz II 6 446-452

25. Agabi 1 452-453

26. Lewi 2 453-455

27. Ameda III 3 455-458

28. Armah Dawit 14 458-472

29. Amsi 5 472-477

30. Salayba 9 477-486

31. Alameda 8 486-494

32. Pazena Ezana 7 494-501
   Of the posterity of Sofya and Abreha Atsbeha until the reign of Pazena Ezana thirty-one sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia.

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Kaleb 30 501-531

2. Za Israel 1 month 531

3. Gabra Maskal 14 531-545

4. Kostantinos 28 545-573

5. Wasan Sagad 15 573-588

6. Fere Sanay 23 588-611

7. Advenz 20 611-631

8. Akala Wedem 8 631-639

9. Germa Asafar 15 639-654

10. Zergaz 10 654-664

11. Dagena Mikael 26 664-690

12. Bahr Ekla 19 690-709

13. Gum 24 709-733

14. Asguagum 5 733-738

15. Latem 16 738-754

16. Talatam 21 754-775

17. Gadagosh 13 775-788

18. Aizar Eskakatir 1/2 day 788

19. Dedem 5 788-793

20, Wededem 10 793-803

21. Wudme Asfare 30 803-833

22. Armah 5 833-838

23. Degennajan 19 838-857

24. Gedajan 1 857-858

25. Gudit 40 858-898

26. Anbase Wedem 20 898-918

27. Del Naad 10 918-928
   Twenty-seven sovereigns of the posterity of Kaleb

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Mara Takla Haymanot, his 13 928- 941
regnal name was Zagwe.

2. Tatawdem 40 941- 981

3. Jan Seyum 40 981-1021

4. Germa Seyum 40 1021-1061

5. Yermrhana Kristos 40 1061-1101

6. Kedus Arbe (Samt) 40 1101-1141

7. Lalibala 40 1141-1181

8. Nacuto Laab 40 1181-1221

9. Yatbarak 17 1221-1238

10. Mayari 15 1238-1253

11. Harbay 8 1253-1261
   Of the posterity of Mara Takla Haymanot (whose regnal name was Zagwe) until the reign of Harbay eleven sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia.

1. Mahbara Wedem

2. Agbea Tsyon

3. Tsinfa Arad

4. Nagash Zare

5. Asfeh

6. Yakob

7. Bahr Asagad

8. Edem Asagad
Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Yekuno Amlak 15 1261-1276

2. Yasbeo Tseyon 9 1276-1285

3. Tsenfa Arad 1 1285-1286

4. Hesba Asagad 1 1286-1287

5. Kedme Asagad 1 1287-1288

6. Jan Asagad 1 1288-1289

7. Sabea Asagad 1 1289-1290

8. Wedma Ared 15 1290-1305

9. Amda Tseyon 30 1305-1335

10. Saifa Ared 28 1335-1363

11. Wedma Asfare 10 1363-1373

12. Dawit 30 1373-1403

13. Tewodoros 4 1403-1407

14. Yeshak 15 1407-1422

15. Andreyas 6 months 1422

16. Hesba Nan 4 1422-1426

17. Bedl Nan (6 months with 1 1426-1427
Andreyas & 6 months)

18. Amde Tseyon 7 1427-1434

19. Zara Yakob 34 1434-1468

20. Boeda Maryam 10 1468-1478

21. Iskender 16 1478-1494

22. Amda Tseyon 1 1494-1495

23. Naod 13 1495-1508
   Of the posterity of Yekuno Amlak up to the reign of Naod 23 sovereigns ruled over Ethiopia.

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Lebna Dengel 32 1508-1540

2. Galawdewos 19 1540-1559

3. Minas 4 1559-1563
   Fifteen years after Atse (Emperor) Lebna Dengel came to the throne Gran devastated Ethiopia for fifteen years.

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Sartsa Dengel 34 1563-1597

2. Yakob 9 1597-1606

3. Za Dengel 1 1606-1607

4. Susneyos 28 1607-1635

5. Fasil 35 1635-1670

6. Degu-Johannis 15 1670-1685

7. Adyam Sagad Iyasu 25 1685-1710

8. Takla Haymanot 2 1710-1712

9. Tewoflus 3 1712-1715

10. Yostos 4 1715-1719

11. Dawit 5 1719-1724

12. Bakaffa 9 1724-1733

13. Birhan Sagad Iyasu 24 1733-1757

14. Iyoas 15 1757-1772

15. Johannis 5 mos. & 5 dys. 1772

16. Takla Haymanot 8 1772-1780

17. Solomon 2 1780-1782

18. Takla Giyorgis 5 1782-1787
   Of the posterity of Sartsa Dengel up to the reign of King Takla Giyorgis eighteen sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia.


   From about 1730 up to the advent of Theodore in 1855 these kings exercised no real power. They were murdered, deposed, restored and driven out again, or treated as nonentities by anyone of the great Rases or semi-independent kings who were strong enough to maintain themselves against their rivals, such as, for example, Ras Mikael Suhul of Tigre (1730-1780), Ras Guksa of Amhara a Galla (1790-1819), and the son (Ras Marye) and grandson (Ras Ali) of the latter.
   In 1813, indeed, no less than six nominal "Kings of Kings of Ethiopia" were all alive, having been successively turned out of office by others.
   The names of all these kings (who were actually raised to the throne) are, however, given below in order to maintain continuity, together with the dates (according to our calendar) of their chequered reigns.
Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Yasus 1 1787-1788

2. Takla Haymanot 1 1788-1789

3. Iskias 6 1789-1795

4. Baeda Maryam 2 1795-1797

5. Junus — 1797

6. Adimo 2 1797-1799

7. Egwala Sion 19 1799-1818

8. Joas 3 1818-1821

9 Gigar 5 1821-1826

10. Baeda Maryam III — 1826

11. Gigar (again) 4 1826-1830

12. Iyasu IV 2 1830-1832

13. Gabra Kristos — 1832

14. Sahala Dengel 8 1832-1840

15. Johannes III 1 1840-1841

16. Sahala Dengel (again) 14 1841-1855

At this time the empire was re-established by Theodore.

17. Theodore 13 1855-1868

18. John IV 21 1868-1889

19. Menelik II 24 1889-1913

20. Le; Yasu 3 1913-1916

21. Zauditu, empress, and 14 1916-1930
Tafari Makonnen, regent
and heir.

22. Haile Selassie I, is the — 1930
title of Tafari Makonnen
after Zauditu's death.
Except for period of
Italian annexation (1936
1942) he has ruled to the
present time.
   For purposes of comparison, it should be remembered that the present Abyssinian autumn-to-autumn calendar is seven or eight years behind ours, according to the period of the year. That is, the Ethiopian date differs by eight years from 1st January to 10th September. It differs by seven years from 11th September to 31st December.
   Thus the year which the Abyssinians regard as A.D. 1 is for us September A.D. 8 to September A.D. 9.
   This difference is not of course exactly the same all the way back throughout the List of Kings, as revisions of the calendar took place at various dates throughout the period. But it is near enough for general comparison.


   An Aramaic royal line spread into Africa, as well as into Shinar and Syria. In Africa, the sons of Aram through Mash (and perhaps Uz also) migrated into Egypt and Ethiopia, mixing with Israel, Cush and the Egyptians.
Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Ori or Aram, son of Shem. 60 2222-2162

2. Gariak I. Mash, son of 66 2162-2096
Aram, settled Charax
Spasini (see Josephus).
Greek word Charax is
translation of Ethiopian
Gariak. This Gariak I
would appear to be of the
family of Mash. These Arameans
spread into Africa, just
as Cush, north of God's
Land (Palestine) are
reported in Syria and

3. Gannkam 83 2096-2013

4. Borsa (queen) 67 2013-1946

5. Gariak II 60 1946-1886

6. Djan I 80 1886-1806

7. Djan II 60 1806-1746

8. Senefrou=Snefru. Job 20 1746-1726
was son-in-law of Snefru.

9. Zeenabzamin 58 1726-1668

10. Sahlan 60 1668-1608

11. Elaryan 80 1608-1528

12. Nimroud 60 1528-1468

13. Eylouka (queen) 45 1468-1423

14. Saloug 30 1423-1393

15. Kharid 72 1393-1321

16. Hogeb 100 1321-1221

17. Makaws 70 1221-1151

18. Assa 30 1151-1121

19. Affar 50 1121-1071

20. Milanos 62 1071-1009

21. Soliman Tehagui. Soliman, 73 1009- 936
an elderly man probably
in his 90's, died the
year in which he received
the news of the overthrow
of Zerah and the
Ethiopians and their
allies (937-936).

Twenty-one sovereigns of the Tribe of Ori ruled.
Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Kam = Ham. Date of 78 2255-2177
Ham is predated to the
autumn preceding
overthrow of Babel. The
Chinese predated to the
winter solstice.

2. Kout = Cush. Son of 50 2177-2127

3. Habassi 40 2127-2087

4. Sebtah 30 2087-2057

5. Elektron 30 2057-2027

6. Neber 30 2027-1997

7. Amen I 21 1997-1976

8. Nehasset Nais (queen) 30 1976-1946

9. Horkam 29 1946-1917

10. Saba II 30 1917-1887

11. Sofard 30 1887-1857

12. Askndou 25 1857-1832

13. Hohey 35 1832-1797

14. Adglag 20 1797-1777

15. Adgala 30 1777-1747

16. Lakniduga 25 1747-1722

17. Manturay 35 1722-1687

18. Rakhu 30 1687-1657

19. Sabe I 30 1657-1627

20. Azagan 30 1627-1597

21. Sousel Atozanis 20 1597-1577

22. Amen II 15 1577-1562

23. Ramenpahte 20 1562-1542

24. Wanuna 3 days 1542

25. Piori II, father of the 15 1542-1527
Ethiopian whom Moses married
when he overthrew Cush in Nubia.
The daughter of Piori betrayed the
city and her father in 1527.
   Twenty-five sovereigns of the tribe of Kam ruled in the land of Cush.



   The following information is taken from the "Rajatarangini, a Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir", by Kalhana, translated by A. Stein, 2 volumes, Westminster, 1900.
   Kalhana's account of Kashmir is thorough. The history need not be presented here as it can be found in detail in his chronicle. Modern scholars misunderstand Kalhana's method of using whole calendar years. Of course, Kalhana added months and days to the whole calendar years in those instances where the exact month and day of a ruler's death was known. But, Kalhana did not intend the months and days to be counted, for they were already included in the first calendar year of the succeeding king.
   The first native Kashmir dynasty — the Gonandiya dynasty — lasted for 1002 years. It was followed by a usurping dynasty for 192 years. The restored Gonandiya dynasty lasted 588 calendar years. Next, the Karkota dynasty ruled 253 years — ending in 855 A.D. Working backward we discover that Kalhana began the Gonandiya dynasty of Kashmir in 1181 B.C.
   This is a significant date since it corresponds to the end of the first Trojan war and the defeat of the Trojan alliance. Prior to 1181 the land of Kashmir had been part of the Indo-Persian, Assyrian and Trojan alliance against the Greeks. Hence, the beginning of this line of rulers indicates a breakup in the alliance. The Indo-Iranian peoples of Kashmir became independent under their own kings.

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

Gonanda III 35 1181-1146

Vibhisana I 53 1146-1093

Indrajit 35 1093-1058

Ravana 30 1058-1028

Vibhisana II 35 1028- 993

Nara I (Kimnara) 40 993- 953

Siddha 60 953- 893

Utpalaksa 30 893- 863

Hiranyaksa 37 863- 826

Hiranyakula 60 826- 766

Vasukula 60 766- 706

Mihirakula 70 706- 636

Baka 63 636- 573

Ksitinanda 30 573- 543

Vasunanda 52 543- 491

Nara II 60 491- 431

Aksa 60 431- 371

Gopaditya 60 371- 311

Gokarna 57 311- 254

Khinkhila-Narendraditya 36 254- 218

Yudhisthira 39 218- 179
Ruler Length of Reign Dates

Pratapaditya I 32 179- 147

Jalaukas 32 147- 115

Tunjina I 36 115- 79

Vijaya 8 79- 71

Jayendra 37 71- 34

Samdhimati-Aryaraja 47 B.C. 34- 14 A.D.
Ruler Length of Reign Dates

Meghavahana 34 14- 48

S'resthasena-Pravarasena I 30 48- 78
(Tunjina II)

Hiranya, with Toramana 30 78- 108

Matrgupta 4 108- 112

Pravarasena II 60 112- 172

Yudhisthira II 39 172- 211

Lahkhana-Narendraditya 13 211- 224

Ranaditya (Tunjina III) 300 224- 524

Vikramaditya 42 524- 566

Baladitya 36 566- 602
Ruler Length of Reign Dates

Durlabhavardhana-Prajnaditya 36 602- 638

Durlabhaka-Pratapaditya II 50 638- 688

Candrapida-Vajraditya 8 688- 696

Tarapida-Udayeditya 4 696- 700

Muktapida-Lalitaditya 36 700- 736

Kuvalayspida 1 736- 737

Vajraditya-Bappiyaka- 7 737- 744

Prthivyapida 4 744- 748

Samgramapida I 7 days 748

Jajja 3 748- 751

Jayapida-Vinayaditya 31 751- 782

Lalitapida 12 782- 794

Samgramapida II (Prthivyspida) 7 794- 801

Cippatajayspida-Brhaspati 12 801- 813

Ajitapida 37 813- 850

Anangapida 3 850- 853

Utpalapida 2 853- 855
Ruler Length of Reign Dates

Avantivarman 28 855- 883

S'amkaravarman 18 883- 901

Gopalavarman 2 901- 903

Samkata 10 days 903

Sugandha 2 903- 905

Partha 16 905- 921

Nirjitavarman (Pangu) 1 921- 922

Cakravarman 11 922- 933

S'uravarman I 1 933- 934

Partha (restored) 1 934- 935

Cakravarman (restored) — 935

S'amkaravardhana 1 935- 936

Cakravarman 1 936- 937

Unmattavanti 2 937- 939

S'uravarman II — 939

Yasaskaradeva 9 939- 948

Varnata 1 day 948

Samgramadeva — 948

Parvagupta 2 948-950

Ksemagupta 8 950- 958

Abhimanyu 14 958- 972

Nandigupta 1 972- 973

Tribhuvana (gupta) 2 973- 975

Bhimagupta 5 975- 980

Didda 23 980-1003
Ruler Length of Reign Dates

Samgramaraja 25 1003-1028

Hariraja 22 days 1028

Ananta 35 1028-1063

Kalasa 26 1063-1089

Utkarsa 22 days 1089

Harsa 12 1089-1101
Ruler Length of Reign Dates

Uccala 10 1101-1111

Radda-S'ankharaja 1 day 1111

Salhana 1 1111-1112

Sussala 8 1112-1120

Bhiksacara 1 1120-1121

Sussala (restored) 7 1121-1128

Jayasimha (Simhadeva) 22 1128
   Jayasimha was still on the throne when Kalhana completed his history in 1150 A. D.


Works quoted in this volume of the Compendium and not found here are generally included in Bibliography at end of Volume I.

Akermana John Yonge, "Remains of Pagan Saxondom". London, 1860.

Alexander, William L., "The Ancient British Church". London, 1889

Anderson, Alan Orr, "Early Sources of Scottish History". Edinburgh, 1922.

Angus, S., "The Mystery Religions and Christianity". London, 1928.

Arnold, Channing and F. J. T. Frost, "The American Egypt. A Record of Travel in Yucatan". London, 1909.

Avebury, Lord, "Pre-Historic Times". London, 1900.

Avery, Catherine B., Ed., "The New Century Classical Handbook". New York, 1962.

Ayer, Joseph Cullen, Jr., "A Source Book for Ancient Church History". New York, 1941.

Baikie, James, "The Sea Kings of Crete". London, 1926.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe, "The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America". 5 vol. New York, 1875.

Berington, Joseph, "A Literary History of the Middle Ages". London, 1814.

Bingham, Hiram, "Lost City of the Incas". London, 1951.

Bingham, Joseph, "The Antiquities of the Christian Church". 2 vol. London, 1920.

Bradley, Henry, "The Story of the Goths". London, 1891.

Bradley, R. N., "Malta and the Mediterranean Race". London, 1912.

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Publication Date: 1969
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