Arabia may be blanketed by arid plateaus and inhospitable deserts. But Arabia is also a vast land inhabited by many different tribes. Few have ever compared it with Europe. Many of the great nations of Europe would be lost in Arabia's solitudes. Arabia also has its past history — one which joins together and confirms the accounts of neighboring nations. Arabia borders — by land and sea — on Mesopotamia and Persia, on Syria and Palestine and on Egypt and Ethiopia. Whatever happened in the heartland of the ancient world inevitably affected the trade routes of Arabia.
WHO WERE THE FIRST ARABS?
The most famous name in Arabian history is that of Ishmael. Ishmael, Abram and Hagar's son, is the progenitor of most of the Arab world. Then why are not the people called Ishmaelites today? Why do we not call the peninsula of Arabia the peninsula of Ishmael? How did Ishmaelites acquire the designation Arab? Answer: the land was already known as Arabia before Ishmael was born! The word Arab is derived from the Hebrew root "arab." It means evening, dusk, and also sterile (desert). The vast arid land of Arabia lay immediately to the west and south of Babylonia from whence human beings spread after Babel. It was only natural that they should call the land which lay to the west Arabia. As they migrated in Arabia they called the land to the south Yemen. Yemen means right and south (cf. the Biblical Ben-jamin) — because in the Middle East people face east (not north) in defining directions. Any who dwelt in this vast peninsula came to be known as Arabs. In fact, one of the earliest heroes in Arabia came to be known simply as Yarab — the Arabian. His real name was Jerah, the son of Joktan. And with him we open the history of Arabia. A simple account of Arabian history may be found in "Universal History," Vol. XVIII. It is immediately noticed that Arabian emphasis is on heroes, not time. Events can be dated only to contemporary generations. Only Yemen has an accurate chronology. This weakness is still witnessed in the Islamic calendar. It is lunar, but not solar. It neglects the seasons and loses seven months in nineteen solar years. Arabian history opens up before the time of Ishmael, as one might readily expect. It begins with the life of Joktan, the son of Heber. The Arabs call Joktan by the name Kahtan. Joktan was the father of thirteen sons mentioned in the Bible, eleven of whom journeyed into Europe where their descendants mainly live today. Several of those sons early planted colonies along the trade routes of the world — just as have the children of Peleg, Joktan's brother, in the modern world. Among the sons who planted colonies along south Arabia were Hazarmaveth, Jerah and Hadoram (whom the Arabs call Jorham). Ophir also planted colonies in other areas of the world. In later history the sons of Hazarmaveth migrated out of Arabia, joined with the Elamites and journeyed into Europe after the fall of Persia. There they came to be known as Sarmatians.
THE JORHAMITES OF HEJAZ
The children of Hadoram or Jorham founded Hejaz. There princes reigned until the time of Ishmael, who is said by Arabian historians to have married the daughter of Modad, a daughter of one of the princes of Jorham's family. The family of Ishmael afterward expelled the Jorhamites from Arabia. The names of the early princes of the Jorhamites have been preserved by Arab historians. Their account is summarized here:
1. Jorham, the brother of Yarab, founded Hejaz; he is Hadoram, the brother of Jerah.
2. Abd Yalil, the son of Jorham.
3. Jorsham, the son of Abd Yalil.
4. Abdo'l Madan, the son of Jorsham.
5. Nogailah, the son of Abdo'l Madan. (Note the name Medan at nearly the same time in Abraham's family.)
6. Abdo'l Masih, the son of Nogailah.
7. Modad, the son of Abdo'l Masih.
8. Amru, the son of Modad.
9. Al Hareth, brother of Amru. This name will appear again, though much later, in the form of Aretas, the king who sought to lay hands on the apostle Paul at Damascus.
10. Amru, the son of Al Hareth.
11. Basher, the brother of Amru.
12. Modad, the son of Amru, the son of Modad. It was his daughter whom Ishmael married, according to Arabian historians. His other wife his mother chose out of Egypt.
Thereafter the name of Kedar (Kidar in Arabic) appears.
Kedar was the son of Ishmael by the daughter of Modad. After the conquest of the Jorhamites, the family of Kedar continued to rule over the Hejaz for nine generations until Adnan, the last one named. There follows a blank period of about 1200 years, after which the Ishmaelites reappear under another leader called Adnan in 122 B.C. One branch of his descendants later established themselves as the Sherifs of Mecca. King Hussein of Jordan is their direct descendant.
THE KINGDOM OF YEMEN
In Arabia, at the southwest corner, is the modern Yemen — Yaman in Arabic. It means south. It is a land of many diverse tribes — many non-Ishmaelite. Yemen was founded by Kahtan — the Joktan of the Bible. Yemen anciently controlled the entrance to the Red Sea from the Indian Ocean. Hence its early importance to the Hebrew family. Hamza Ben-el-Hasan of Isfahan has preserved the history and chronology of Yemen to the time of Mohammed. The best summary of his work is found in "Geschichte der Araber vor Muhamed" by August Ruhle von Lilienstern, Berlin, 1836, pp. 103 ff and especially Tafel I.
Rulers of Yemen Length of Reign Dates
1. Kahtan or Joktan, first (His brother Peleg was established his rule in born 2268) Yemen, then went into Europe where he was known as Hister (meaning same as original Hebrew JOKTAN).
2. Yarab, son of Kahtan, from whom the Kahtan Arabs of the south derive their origin. His Biblical name is Jerah.
3. Yashab, son of Yarab.
4. Abd Shems, surnamed Saba, son of Yashab. He led successful expeditions against enemies in the peninsula. In 1978 he expanded his power across the Red Sea into Ethiopia, (See Ethiopian history where he established for dates) himself as the head of a new Joktanite dynasty. In Ethiopian history he is known as Akbunas Saba. Abd Shems had several sons, among whom were Hamyar, Amru and Cahlan. Cahlan succeeded his father on the throne in Ethiopia in 1923 under the name of Nakehte Kalnis.
5, Hamyar, son of Abd Shems, 150 1709-1559 began his reign, according to Abulfeda, 129 years after the death of Hud (whom Arabs say is Eber). Hamyar drove the remnant of the Themudites or Troglodytes out of Yemen. These were later found by Greek Geographers on the African shore of the Red Sea.
6. Wayel, son of Hamyar, succeeded to the kingdom. Other writers mention Cahlan — which implies a division of land among the princes.
7. Alsacsac, son of Wayel.
8. Yaafar, son of Alsacsac.
9. Dhu Rujash. At this point it ought to be noted that the number of generations over so long a period corresponds almost exactly to the Biblical record from Abraham to David. There were 14 generations in the Bible in just under 1000 years. As in the Biblical record the inheritance often passed to a son born late in life (as in the case of David, the youngest son of Jesse).
10. Al Numan, son of Yaafar.
11. Ashman, son of Numan.
12. Shaddad, son of Ad, son of Al Matata, son of Abd Shems. He was a very powerful prince in Arabic tradition He lived during the time of the great Hyksos expansion in the Middle East. Arab tradition claims he ruled 260 years.
13. Lokman, brother of Shaddad.
14. Dhu Sadad, brother of Lokman. -1150
15. Al Hareth, son of Dhu 125 1150-1025 Sadad. In his time Yemen became immensely wealthy. Reason? The Trojan war. With trade shut off from Scythia, it was inevitable that there should be an expansion of commerce along the southern route.
16. Dhu'l Karnain Assaab. (Joint reign with successor who is assigned entire period.)
17. Dhutl Manar Abrahah, son of 183 1025- 842 Assaab.
18. Africus, son of Dhu'l 164 842- 678 Manar Abrahah. His name signifies the connection between Egypt, Ethiopia and South Arabia at this time. He settled North Africa with Berbers from Palestine and Egypt.
19. Dhu'l Adhaar Amru, son of 25 678- 653 Africus, made foreign expeditions.
20. Sharhabil, descendant of Alsacsac. (Joint reign.)
21. Al Hodhad, son of Sharhabil. 75 653- 578
22. Balkis, son of Hodhad. In 20 578- 558 some Arabic sources his name is confused with Belkis — the Arabic name for the Queen of Sheba.
23. Nasherol'neam, descendant 85 558- 473 of Sharhabil.
24. Shamer Yaraash, son of 37 473- 436 Nasher. He gave his name to Samarkand in Central Asia. At this time there must have been extensive migration of Edomites and Joktanites out of Arabia into Central Asia, around Turkestan.
25. Abu Malec, son of Shamer. 55 436- 381
26. Amran, son of Amer, descendant of Cahlan, the brother of Hamyar.
27. Amru, son of Amer (both brothers reign jointly, but the chronology is reckoned after the reigns of Abu Malec and Al Akran).
28. Al Akran, descendant of 53 381- 328 Abu Malec.
29. Dhu Habshan, son of 70 328- 258 Al Akran.
30. Tobba, younger brother 163 258- 95 of Al Akran.
31. Colaicarb, son of Tobba. 35 95- 60
32. Abu Carb Asaad (Tobba). 20 60- 40 He is mentioned in the Koran. He revived religious interest among the Arabians and Hamyarites. He adorned the Kaaba, the sacred stone building at Mecca, and introduced Judaism among the Hamyarites, The Arab historian Ibu Khaldun reports that Abu Carb sent large military expeditions into Central Asia. Two of these reached Tibet and China, where they caused a great blood bath. On the way back many warriors of the Hamyarite armies settled in Tibet. Tribes using the Hamyarite alphabet were still found in that region in modern times (Marquart, "Osteurop"ische und Ostasiatische Streifz?ge", p. 84). Abu Carb was murdered, possibly for religious reasons.
33. Hassan ben Tobbai, son 70 40 B.C.- 31 A.D. Abu Carb.
34. Amru Tobbai (Dhu Lawad), 63 31- 94 son of Hassan.
35. Abd Celal 74 94- 168
36. Tobba, grandson of Hassan. 78 168- 246
37. Al Haroth, son of Amru. (Joint reign.) He was king of Hamyarites who embraced Judaism.
38. Morthed, son of Celal, also 41 246- 287 surnamed Dhu Lawad.
39. Waciaa, son of Morthed. 37 287- 324
40. Abrahah, son of Alsabah (Joint reign).
41. Sabban (Joint reign).
42. Sabbash (Joint rule with 15 324- 339 Abrahah).
43. Hassan, descendant of Amru 57 339- 396 (Joint rule with Sabban).
44. Dhu Shanater. He was 27 396- 423 finally dethroned for unnatural lusts, having abused several youths of the noblest families.
45. Yusuf Dhu Nowas 20 423- 443
46. Dhu Jadan, the last of 60 443- 503 the Hamyaritic monarchs. He sought to enforce Judaism in opposition to Christianity. The Ethiopians, with help of Byzantium, defeated Dhu Jadan. He perished in the sea, fleeing from the Ethiopians. Ethiopia ruled Yemen for the next 72 years (503-575) until the Persian conquest.
47. Arnat 20 503- 523
48. Abrahah 23 523- 546
49. Iecsoum (Yacsum) 17 546- 563
50. Masruk 12 563- 575
51. Seif Ebn Dhu Yazan, a 575 descendant of the old royal family of Hamyar, recovered the throne from the Ethiopians with the aid of the Persian Khosru Anushirwan. Seif was, however, slain by certain Ethiopians whom he had failed to expel. After 575 the Persians appointed princes until the time of Mohammedan conquest of Yemen.
Arabian historians reckon 3000 years to the end of the Kingdom of Yemen. And it is indeed exactly 3000 years from the end of the Flood to the death of Mohammed in 632, when the government of Arabia passed to the Ishmaelite caliphs, the successors of Mohammed.
ARABIA'S INDIAN OCEAN NEIGHBORS
To complete Volume II, we must recount the brief history of Arakan, in Burma, and the history of early India before 1649. The Arakanese, in Burma, have preserved a remarkable history going back to the Tower of Babel. The initial part of it was cited in the early history of Peru. A continuation of that chart is given below. It traces the migration of peoples out of Mesopotamia into the Ganges valley. For several centuries after the age of Horus (Maradzi II of Arakanese history) there are Hindu names ending in -sandra in the list of rulers. Abruptly the names change. There followed a migration of Southeast Asians out of India into the area of Arakan along the Burmese coast. During the time in India the early Hindu rulers utilized the nonaccession-year method of dating. That is, the last calendar year of a king (during which he died or was deposed) was also reckoned as the first calendar year of his successor. This same method was used in the nation Israel to the time of Jehu — in contrast to the accession-year system of Judah. Arakanese records fill in the missing years of Indian history to 1649. Properly restored from the palm-leaf records, their early rulers appear as follows:
Maradzi II (Horus) 33 2004-1971, Babylonian accession-year reckoning
Marakeng Year 1 1971-1970 Year 32 1940-1939, early Indian nonaccession- year reckoning
Ngatshapo Year 1 1940-1939 (a usurper) Year 21 1920-1919
Dwaratsandra Year 1 1920-1919 Year 40 1881-1880
Tholatsandra Year 1 1881-1880 Year 33 1849-1848
Tsandathuriyatsandra Year 1 1849-1848 Year 37 1813-1812
Kalatsandra Year 1 1813-1812 Year 40 1774-1773
Titsandra Year 1 1774-1773 Year 31 1744-1743
Madhuthatsandra Year 1 1744-1743 Year 20 1725-1724
Dzeyatsandra Year 1 1725-1724 Year 40 1686-1685
Mokkhatsandra Year 1 1686-1685 Year 26 1661-1660
Gunnatsandra Year 1 1661-1660 Year 12 1650-1649
Three Usurpers in one 1650-1649, calendar year. ending early Indian nonaccession- year reckoning
At this point the names of kings ending in -sandra cease. The succeeding centuries of Indian history may be found restored in Volume I of the Compendium. The migration in 1649 of Mongoloid peoples out of India to Arakan in Burma was a consequence of the war with Assyria in 1649.