One thousand years of Persian history is missing from today's history textbooks. Most writers begin their account of Persia about the time of Cyrus the Great. A few archaeological notes usually precede the story. But the real history of Persia (or Iran) for a thousand years before Cyrus has been deliberately removed from history books.
EARLY KINGS OF PERSIA
Persia, the modern Iran, like most other nations, has preserved its history from early times. Traditions and legends have no doubt been added along the way. But the main framework and sequence of events is so clearly preserved that no doubt about the facts need exist. Of course there is a reason why early Persian history is rejected. It includes several Biblical heroes! That alone, in the eyes of modern interpreters of history, is enough to condemn any record. Early Persian history has been preserved not only by Persian and Arabic writers, but in a few rare translations into modern languages. Perhaps the most complete is Shea's "Early Kings of Persia." A less complete account may be recovered from D'Herbelot's "Bibliotheque Orientale." More complete is the analysis in "Universal History," Vol. V. Before recounting in brief the history of Persia, it would be well to compare, below, the table of rulers from Mirkhond, the Persian historian, with that of other oriental authors. One is immediately aware of figures that at first glance seem preposterous. But each one has significant meaning. They are not all lengths of reign — several are based on time lapses since the beginning of important eras. Without these long figures, it would not be possible to restore Persian history.
Table of Persian Rulers From Mirkhond From Other Oriental Authors
Dynasty or Pishdadians or Judges
1. Kajomaras or Cajoumaras 40 560
2. Siamek, a son, slain after — — very brief reign.
Kajomaras resumes kingdom — 30
An interregnum. — 200
3. Hushang 50 50
4. Tamurash, said to be 30 — grandson of Hushang
5. Giemshid or Giamschid, 30 30 descendant of Kajomaras
6. Dahak or Zahak (Zoak), — 1000 an Arab
7. Aphridun, or Feridoun, son — 120 of Giemshid
8. Manugjahr or Manougeher 120 500 surnamed Phirouz; son of Irege, son of Feridoun
9. Nodar or Nudar, a son 7 7
10. Apherasiab or Afrasiab, 12 12 descendant of Tur, the son of Feridoun
11. Zaab, Zab, Zoub, or — 30 Bazab, heir of the house of Kajomaras
12. Gustasp, or Kischtasp, — 30 or 20 son of Zaab
Dynasty of Kaianites
1. Kaikobad 100 120
2. Kaikaus 150 150
3. Kaikhosru or Kaihosru 60 60
4. Lohrasp or Lohorasb 120 120
5. Gushtasp, Gustasp or 120 120 Kishtasp, son of Lohrasp
6 Ardshir, surnamed Bahaman, 112 112 grandson of Gustasp
7. Queen Homai 32 32
8. Darab I (Persian spelling 4 14 of Darius)
9. Darab II 14 —
After him came Iscander Ben Filoukous — Alexander the son of Philip.
The time element at the close of this list is clear. The days of Alexander the Great have been reached. Darab II is Persian king Darius III Codomannus. He was slain in 330, after Alexander overthrew his empire. But most of the preceding names in the table of kings are not those found in history books. The answer is that Persia's last king was not a direct descendant of the great Persian kings of history. This table of Persian royal names is an account of another branch of royalty — the family of Darius Codomannus. Once we know the date of Darab II — his reign ends in 330 — it is possible to restore the whole list, if we just take the figures exactly as they are. The following chart is the restoration of the Dynasty of the Kaianites — combining both Mirkhond and other oriental writers.
THE SECOND RACE
The Second Race, or Lengths of Time Dates Dynasty of the Kaianites
l. Kaikobad 100 1042-942 He reigned 20 years with (or 120) (1062-942) a predecessor.
2. Kaikaus, grandson of 150 942-792 Kaikobad The 150 years represent the duration of time since the death of his grandfather.
3. Kaikhosru, grandson of 60 792-732 Kaikaus He died without male heir.
4. Lohorasp, a near relative 120 732-612 of Kaikhosru Note that the year of his death is 612 — the date of the fall of Nineveh. Lohorasp was an ally of Assyria. He joined with the Assyrians in their conquest of the Jews in Palestine in the days of king Manasseh. He perished in 612 in a revolt which carried Persia from the Assyrian camp to that of the Medes and Babylonians.
5. Gustasp, called Hystaspes 120 612-492 in Greek literature. Nearly 30 years after he came to power in a revolt against his father, Gustasp was involved in a war with the inhabitants of Turkestan and Scythia. This is the struggle which occurred in 584 between Media and Scythia (see Vol. I of the Compendium). The long reigns assigned to this family may reflect the practice of choosing the youngest heir. In several instances a grandson is the successor. Or the figures may represent reckoning by eras and may not distinguish the separate reigns of father and son, who may also have had the same throne names.
6. Ardshir Bahaman, surnamed 112 492-380 Dirazdest — the long- handed. He is the Artaxerxes Longimanus of history. Here again the assigned length extends beyond the life of the king, and is in fact the practice of reckoning in eras.
7. Queen Homai daughter of 32 380-348 Ardshir according to most Persian authors. 8. Darab I, her son, say the 4 348-344 eastern traditions, by her (or 14) (358-344) own father. The date 358 is that of Artaxerxes III Ochus of history texts.
9. Darab II, slain in 330 14 344-330
THE FIRST RACE
Persian historians commonly refer to the early judges and kings of their land as the "first race" and the "second race." The second has just been restored. The first is now possible to date. Its last king or Judge, Gustasp, ended his reign in 1042, at which time he was succeeded by Kaikobad of the "second race." With 1042 as ending date, the reign of Kajomaras would begin in 1741. Observe how all these figures fit as pieces of a puzzle.
The First Race of Lengths of Time Dates Persian Rulers
1. Kajomaras, a descendant 40 1741-1701 of Aram (560) (2261-1701) What occurred in 2261? What era does this mark? It is 108 years after the flood. Now check Italian history. There we notice that 2261 is the date when Noah began to send out colonies to inhabit new areas of the world. This separation of the land to various families and races is what Nimrod rebelled against. So Persian history confirms what has already been established from ancient Italian records preserved among the Etruscans.
Note that 1741 marks the end of the sole reign of Senwosre III or Sesostris, the great Egyptian conqueror of the Near East — including Persia.
2. Siamek Shortly after ascending the throne he was slain (1701).
Kajomaras returns to power 30 1701-1671
After Kajomaras no supreme rulers in Persia are recorded for a space of 200 years — 1671-1471. This period of Interregnum has an important bearing on the history of the Tatars. And also on Assyria (see Vol. I of Compendium).
3. Hushang, surnamed Pishdud 50 1471-142I (meaning judge). Hushang began the Dynasty of judge- kings — the Pishdadians, Who was this man? His Persian name — Hushang — would be Husham in Hebrew. Is there in the Biblical record a Husham living about the time of Moses and Joshua? Indeed there is! Turn to the record in Genesis 36:31 and 34: "And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel of Temani reigned ...." This Husham or Hushang, famous in the Biblical record, is the Temanite king who ruled over the children of Esau or Edom. His native land was in Persia — proving how early certain of the children of Esau were moving out of the land of Edom by the Red Sea into the land of Persia and Turkestan, Husham was king over the widely scattered tribes of Edom. He was the great ruler who ordered Moses not to cross his territory in the year 1448-1447. But Husham's is not the only name that will appear in Persian history from this list in Genesis 36.
4. Tahmurash 30 1421-1391
5. Giemshid 30 1391-1361
6. Dahak, a famous man out of Arabia who came to power in the last years of Giemshid. He drove the latter into exile, hunted him down when he discovered Giemshid had a son, and finally slew him. What do the 1000 years represent? There is only one possible explanation. He came to the Persian throne 1000 years after the Flood — 2369-1369. In 1369 he drove Giemshid from the throne. The time of Dahak's power in Persia is therefore 8 years — 1369- 1361. In 1361 a son of Giemshid, now three years old, came to the throne with the death of Dahak.
7. Alphidun 120 1361-1241 The new king lived 123 years. He married the daughter of Dahak. He divided his realm between his sons. To Tur he gave Turkestan. To Irege, son of a Persian woman, the realm of Persia was assigned. From Tur the Temanite inhabitants of Turkestan took the name Turan or Turk. In the family quarrels which followed, all the sons of Alphidun were slain, and the kingship passed to Manougeher, son of Irege.
8. Manougeher, surnamed Phirouz 120 1241-1121 From him the people of Iran called Persians. Phirouz is the Perses of Greek tradition who lived at the time of the war with Troy! But what of the figure 500? Answer: Manougeher came to power in 1241, exactly 500 years after Kajomaras came to the royal estate — 1741-1241.
9. Nodar 7 1121-1114
10. Apherasiab 12 1114-1102 He was a great Khan of Turkestan, a descendant of Tur, and joined Persia with Tartary. Constant rebellion led at length to the establishment of a descendant of Kajomaras on the Persian throne.
11. Zaab or Bazab 30 1102-1072 Who was this Zaab? Turn to Genesis 36:39. Hadar, king of Edom, married "Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-zahab" ("Jewish Publ. Soc."). (Mezahab is the KJV spelling.) Bazab is but an altered and shortened spelling of the Hebrew Me-zahab (the letters "b" and "m" being easily interchangeable in Indo European tongues — cf. Emher for Eber in Irish). Hadar is the last king in Edom who began to reign before Saul. The chronology of Persia is in perfect harmony with the Biblical account. Here again is proof that the Bible is the foundation of knowledge. Without the list of rulers of Edom in Genesis 36, it would not be possible to understand fully who the early rulers of Persia were.
12. Gustasp or Kischtasp 30 1072-1042 The 20 years of certain (or 20) (1062-1042) oriental writers is the duration of the joint reign with Kaikobad. Persian historians declare that Kishtasp was the son of a Jewess of the tribe of Benjamin. This was the very time of the dominance of Benjamin in Israel — and especially the family of Kish, the father of Saul. The reign of Gustasp was put to an end by struggles with Apherasiab of Turkestan. In this time of national struggle, an heir of the line of Nodar and Zaab established Persian independence from the Turks and founded the Dynasty of the Kaianites or the "second race" of Persian historians.
And that restores the amazing 1000 years of missing Persian history.
TURKESTAN, TURKS AND MONGOLS
In the vast stretches north of Persia live a medley of peoples. Mongols, Tatars, Turks, Turkomen, and Persians, among many others. The history of this area is intimately connected with ancient Persia. The nomadic tribes inhabiting the region have not preserved any chronological framework of their past history, but their line of great Khans has sufficient parallels that the main events of Turkestan or Eastern Scythia may be ascertained. The Bible labels this vast area the land of Gog (see Ezekiel 38). Gog was a descendant of Japheth. The western half of these vast reaches belongs today to the Soviet Union. The eastern part is Mongolia and a part of China (Sinkiang Province). The whole area is called Turkestan by geographers. The word Turk has in the Turkic or Mongolian languages the meaning of "strong warrior." The Mongoloid Turkic people trace their ancestry back to Turk, the adopted son of Japheth. (The Mongoloid Turks are to be distinguished from the Caucasian Osmanli Turks of modern Turkey — the sons of Teman who acquired the name Turk from living in that geographic area.) The son of Turk in Tatar history was Taunak Khan. (Khan means ruler.) He was, at least in part, an earlier contemporary of Kajomaras of Persia. Taunak is affirmed to have lived 240 years, according to Abu'l Ghazi Bahadur Khan's "Genealogical History of the Tatars," published in 1730 in London. This is well within the ages listed in Genesis for the patriarchs immediately after the Flood. Taunak was succeeded in order by Jelza Khan, Dibbakui Khan and Kajuk Khan — the latter two having long reigns. The son of Kajuk was Alanza Khan or Ilingeh Khan. His was a period of growing prosperity and luxury. He was the father of Tatar Khan, from whom the Tatars trace their name, and of Mogul Khan, from whom the Moguls or Mongols trace their name. The son of Mogul Khan was Kara Khan. In his day there was a rapid spread of idolatry, declare the Mohammedan Tatar historians. Hushang of Persia was ruler in Persia.
In the days of Kara Khan, after the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt, his son Oguz or Ogus Khan revolted against the idolatry of his father (see the "Universal History", Vol. XX). Later, Ogus, after 72 years of war, created a vast Mongol Empire. He subjected Cathay (part of China), Tashkent, Samarkand and all Turkestan, Kashmir, part of Armenia and Iran. Iran at this time was without unified leadership during the reign of Giemshid (1391-1361). Oguz Khan carried his conquests (Diodorus of Sicily II, 43) to Egypt. Interestingly, this is the time of the Hyksos rule in Egypt. And one of the Hyksos rulers had the name of Khayan or Khan. This king could be none other than Oguz Khan. His 116 year reign from Tatar history is therefore 1392-1276. Ogus Khan was succeeded by Kiun Khan (1276-1206). His name means the "sun". The history of Persia indicated that hereafter the kings of Persia dominated the accessible steppes of Turkestan. This would be the time of Alphidun, who set his son Tur over Turkestan. He was followed by Apherasiab. In order there followed Juldus Khan, Mengli Khan, Tengis Khan and Il Khan. In the days of Il Khan (in the 600's B.C.) the Tatars warred against the Mongols and nearly obliterated them. Il had a son Kajan who survived the struggle. For 400 years the Mongols disappear from the pages of Tatar history into the vastnesses of the mountains of Asia. Now to return to the time of Alanza Khan and his son Tatar Khan. The Tatars in the Soviet Union trace their early Khans from Tatar the brother of Mogul. From Tatar descended Buka, Jalanzak and Ettala Khan. Ettala's son Attaisis Khan fought bloody wars — in the days of Ogus Khan of the Mongols. He was followed by Orda, Baydu and Siuntz Khan. The latter in a grand alliance destroyed the Mongol power. After this great victory the Tatars split up under petty rulers and have left us but few names of their rulers. Based on the number of generations this victory over the Mongols occurred in the 600's. After multiplying in the mountains bordering on Mongolia, the Moguls finally rose to power in the late 200's. In another fifty years they challenged the Tatars, conquered them and became the masters of much of eastern Scythia. The Tatars and Mongols - descendants of Turk whom Japheth adopted as his son - preserved for posterity the names of over 20 Khans (see Vol. XX of "Universal History") who ruled Mongolia and adjacent territory until the twelfth century of the present era, Then it was that the Mongols burst forth on the world, ravaged Asia and plunged with terrible swiftness west into the heart of Europe under Jenghis Khan.
THE HISTORY OF ARMENIA
The principal source of Armenian history is that of Moses Khoren, a celebrated writer of the fifth century. In part his material is derived from the books of Mar-Abas Catina, a learned Aramean of the second century B.C. Modern archaeology provides additional information beginning with the period of the late Assyrian Empire. Armenian history has been treated in much the same manner as Persian history. Prior to the Assyrian period all is rejected without being examined to see if it corresponds with the parallel accounts of other nations. Armenian history begins with the account of Haik or Haig, the son of Togarmah, the son of Gomer. What's wrong with Biblical characters suddenly appearing on the scene shortly after the Flood? Nothing — unless one doesn't want to acknowledge the plain facts of the Bible and history. Historians acknowledge the land about Armenia, as late as the days of Shalmaneser the Great, was known as the land of Togarmah. of course, that is from archaeology! Armenians descend from Aram, son of Shem (see Josephus). Intermarriage between Togarmah's family and Aram's has undoubtedly given rise to the unique character of the Armenians. The following tables, prepared by Michael Chamich and St. Martin, are taken from the "Collection des Historiens Anciens et Modernes de l'Armenie" by Victor Langlois, Paris, 1880, vol. II, pp. 385-386.
PATRIARCHS OF ARMENIA
Kamer, Gomer, 37 2178-2141 Armais 40 1816-1776
son of Japheth
Togarmah 198 2141-1943 Amassia 32 1776-1744
Haik 81 1943-1862 Gegham 50 1744-1694
Armenak 46 1862-1816 Harma 31 1694-1663
Armenak, declares Issaverdenz, "with a large body of his people, advanced a few days journey to the northeast," and colonized a new area of the Armenian plateau. (Page 56 of "Armenia and the Armenians," Vol. I.) The family of Aram paralleled the family of Togarmah, rather than succeeding it as most Armenian historians claim.
Aram, son of 58 2108-2050 Shem
Aram "was the first to raise the Armenian name to any degree of renown." One of his "followers" was Mishag or Mishak. Certainly here we have the family of Aram and his son Mash or Meshech of the Bible.
Ara the Handsome 26 2050-2024
Semiramis, Queen of Assyria, offered to marry Ara. He refused. And in an ensuing battle between the Assyrians and Armenians, Ara perished. Semiramis raised Garthos to the throne in his father's stead. Sometimes his name is spelled Kardos. During his day Semiramis and Ninyas struggled for the throne in Assyria. She fled to the Armenian king. Out of gratitude for having been placed on the throne, he raised an army and marched with Semiramis against Ninyas Zames. Both Kardos and Semiramis were slain and Ninyas came to the throne in 2006 in Assyria.
Kardos, called 18 2024-2006 Ara Araian
Anoushavan 63 2006-1943
Anoushavan had no heir to the throne; submits to Assyria as do his successors; he is succeeded by Haik in 1943.
Paret 50 1663-1613 Geghak 30 1228-1198
Arbak 44 1613-1569 Horo 3 1198-1195
Zavan 37 1569-1532 Zarmair, 12 1195-1183 slain by Achilles
Pharnas I 53 1532-1479 Interregnum 2 1183-1181
Sour 45 1479-1434 Shavarsh II 43 1181-1138
Havanak 30 1434-1404 Perch I 35 1138-1103
Vashtak 22 1404-1382 Arboun 27 1103-1076
Haikak I 18 1382-1364 Perch II 40 1076-1036
Ampak I 14 1364-1350 Bazouk 50 1036- 986
Arnak 17 1350-1333 Hoy 44 986- 942
Shavarsh I 6 1333-1327 Houssak 31 942- 911
Norair 24 1327-1303 Ampak II 27 911- 884
Vestam 13 1303-1290 Kaipak 45 884- 839
Kar 4 1290-1286 Pharnouas I 33 839- 806
Gorak 18 1286-1268 Pharnas II 40 806- 766
Hrant I 25 1268-1243 Skaiordi 17 766- 749
Endzak 15 1243-1228
KINGS OF ARMENIA
Parouyr, 48 749- 701 Haikak II 36 606- 570 frees Armenia from Assyria Erouand I 4 570- 566 Hratchia 22 701- 679 Tigran I 45 566- 521 Pharnouas, 13 679- 666 the second Vahagn 25 521- 496
Pachouych 35 666- 631 Aravan 20 496- 476
Kornak 8 631- 623 Nerseh 35 476- 441
Phavos 17 623- 606 Zarah 46 441- 395
Armog 9 395- 386 Neoptolemus 2 323- 321
Bagam 14 386- 372 Hrant II, or 4 321- 317
Van 20 372- 352 Ardoates 33 317- 284 Vahe 23 352- 329 (20) (352-332) Hrant II, or 45 284- 239 died in war with Alexander Orontes the Great
Artavazanes 50 239-189 Mihram 6 329- 323 a Persian appointed by Artaxias 30 189-159 Alexander Artavazd 10 159-149
Kurkjian's "History of Armenia" may be consulted for succeeding periods. Armenian history commences with a settlement of colonists in 2247, seven years after the episode at Babel. These colonists were subject to the rulers in Babylonia for 139 years. They gained their independence in 2108. This date is traditionally assigned to Haik, but rightfully belongs to Aram. Armenian history clearly places the family of Aram contemporary with Semiramis and Ninyas. Since Togarmah settled Armenia earlier than Aram, the line of Aram was inserted after the line of Gomer. It should have been made parallel. The family of Gomer continued down to the time of Paret in 1663. Note that the period assigned to Gomer and Togarmah in Armenian history corresponds with Italian and Spanish history. The white branch of the family was settling in Europe, while the Oriental branch migrated eastward. It appears that Ul, the son of Aram who settled Armenia, is Ara — the "r" replacing the "l".