The Key to the history of the New World has been lost. Not a single historian or archaeologist knows the true origin of American Indian civilization. And no wonder! They have thrown away the keys to that history. One of those keys will be found in Danish history. The other — and most important — key in the checkered history of rugged Scotland.
WHAT HISTORIANS CLAIM
The famous eight-volume "History of Scotland", by John Hill Burton, begins the history of Scotland this way: "It is in the year 80 of the Christian era that the territory in later times known as Scotland comes out of utter darkness, and is seen to join the current of authentic history. In that year Julius Agricola brought Roman troops north ...." This is a typical — but mistaken — view of Scottish history. Historians have made an idol out of Roman records. What the Romans either refused to preserve, or carelessly neglected to record, is all too often treated with contempt by modern historians. Scotland was never long under the Roman heel. The Romans were not particularly interested in its rocky highlands. Consequently they did not occupy themselves with recording the major events of the past that befell its inhabitants. Today, numerous documents are available covering the history of Scotland from very early times. These chronicles are usually disparaged in historical circles — or at most treated as quaint and curious documents. But to restore the lost history of Scotland from them is frowned on with disdain. Yet in these records are the missing links which, until now, have sundered the Old World from the New. It is time the true story of Scotland were made known. Here, in outline form, are the major events that make Scottish history.
FIRST MAJOR SETTLEMENT
The geographic location of Scotland is important in its history. Scotland is the link between Scandinavia and Britain and Ireland. Its shores provide control of the far reaches of the North Sea and the ocean. Scotland was consequently invaded, peaceably and by frightful devastation, several times in its history. The first permanent settlement of Scotland, for which we have recorded history, begins with the coming of Danus I of Denmark in 1040. When the Cimbric tribes called upon an heir of the Trojan throne to establish his domain in Denmark, Odin responded immediately. Out of southeastern Europe he marched into Denmark. Coming with him was a mixed tribe known as the Agathyrsi. Agathirsi was their name, declares an old Scottish Chronicle. ("Controversial Issues in Scottish History", by W. H. Gregg, p. 125.) Odin settled them in Scotland under their leader Cruithne — after whom they were called Cruithnians or Cruithne. Herodotus, the Greek historian, traces the Agathyrsi to their origin in the Scythian plains of what is now the southern Ukraine The Agathyrsi were a mixed race. Various struggles led to a catastrophe among the Agathyrsi who came with Odin. They found themselves without women! As a consequence they sought wives among neighboring tribes. They landed in Ireland at the time of the establishment of the Milesian monarchy under Ghede the Herimon (1016-1002). Following a few skirmishess an agreement was reached. The Milesians of Ireland agreed to give wives to the Agathyrsi from their daughters on one condition: that the Agathyrsi would pass on their inheritance through their daughters, not their sons. This was to acknowledge that any royalty which might follow derived kingship from their Milesian wives, not from the Agathyrsi men. On this condition the Agathyrsi departed again for Scotland.
LINE OF JUDAH IN SCOTLAND
The women who journeyed in that day to Scotland were Milesians — of the family of Mileadh. In volume I of the Compendium the history of the kingly line from Mileadh to the present throne in Great Britain was given in its entirety. Its ancient connection with the throne of David, in Judah, was made plain. But the genealogy of Mileadh was not included. The line of Mileadh, in Irish records, properly begins with Easru in Egypt. The name Easru is Old Irish for Ezra or Azariah. Easru was a friend of Moses. One Irish tradition has him crossing the Red Sea with the children of Israel. Another tradition has him journeying, after the Exodus, to Scythia. Irish annalists became confused by these two movements of Easru and his family. It never occurred to them that he might have crossed the Red Sea with Moses, and then, at a later time journeyed to Scythia. No Irish records preserve the ancestry of Easru or Azariah. Many myths were later created by Irish monks to account for this blank. It seems not to have occurred to them that the Bible might record the ancestry of Easru, ending at the Exodus. The previous volume of the Compendium established the significant fact that the symbol of the line of Easru and Mileadh was the Crimson or Red Branch — signifying the royal line Zarah, Judah's son (Genesis 38:30). Now open the Bible to the genealogy of Judah. "And the sons of Zarah: Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, and Calcol, and Dara .... And the sons of Ethan: Azariah" (I Chronicles 2:6, 8). Here is an Azariah, of the family of Judah — and of Zarah, the Red Branch. Azariah was of the same generation as Moses — both were great-great-grandsons of Jacob (compare with Exodus 6:16-20). Notice also that Azariah's descendants did not enter Palestine. His genealogy is not continued beyond the Exodus. That is significant. Further, the name Azariah in Hebrew is often shortened to Ezra (see any Biblical encyclopaedia). Its Old Irish form would be Easru. So here we have an Azariah (or Ezra), of the same generation as Moses, Living at the time of the Exodus, whose descendants did not settle in Palestine, and who was of the Crimson Branch. At the same time Irish history reveals an Easru — Old Irish for Azariah or Ezra — living in Moses' day, crossing the Red Sea, but not settling in Palestine, whose descendants in after generations used the symbol of the Crimson Branch! Here is the line of Zarah — Judah! Easru is Azariah, Judah's great-great-grandson. In chart form (from the Bible and Stokvis' Manuel) the Milesian princely line appears thus:
Jacob Judah Zarah Ezra Ethan Azariah, who is Easru Sru Eibher Scot Beogamon Ogamon Tait Agnamhan Lamhfinn Heber Glunfionn Agnonfinn Eimhear Glas Nenuaill Nuadhat Aldoid Earchada Deaghata Bratha Breogan Bile Mileadh
Ghede the Herimon, now gave daughters of the royal family to the Cruithne. From these noble women sprang a line of kings that finally united with the Scots in the person of Kenneth Mac Alpin in 843. In after ages the Cruithne came to be known, falsely, as Picts. The true Picts were another people altogether — an uncivilized people who painted themselves. Because the Cruithne ruled over the Picts who lived in the Scottish highlands, later writers called them both "Picts." The wild, unsettled Picts later disappeared from Scotland. Where? — historians do not know. But Scottish history tells! But first, to summarize the story of the half-Jewish kings who descended from the Cruithnians and the Hebrew Milesian women.
EARLIEST HISTORY OF SCOTLAND
The complete king list — and an accurate chronology of all the kings of the Cruithne — has come down to us in the "Pictish Chronicle." The record begins with the first settlement of the Agathyrsi in 1040. That is the year they were planted in Northwest Europe by Odin of Denmark, who led them out of their ancient homeland in Thrace. The "Pictish Chronicle" begins with the name of Cruithne and seven sons, who divided the Scottish realm between them. The entire period from the first migration in 1040 to the death of Cruithne and his sons was 100 years. Thereafter the royal line was inherited from the mother's side, not the father's, in accordance with the original agreement with the Milesians. The following chart is taken from the "Pictish Chronicle."
King's Names Lengths of Reign Dates
Cruidne (or Cruithne), 100 1040- 940 son of Cinge (or Kinne), father of the Agathyrsi dwelling in Scotland.
The seven sons of Cruithne:
Ce, that is, Cecircum 15
The entire period of Cruithne and his seven sons is contained in the 100 years assigned to Cruithne. None of the sons' reigns can be dated. The kingship after 940 was passed on to the following:
Gedeolgudach 80 940-860
Denbacan 100 860-760
Finnechta (Olfinecta) 60 760-700
Guididgaedbrecach 50 700-650
Gestgurtich 40 650-610
Wurgest 30 610-580
Brudebout 48 580-532
"From Brudebout descended 30 kings of the name of Brude, who reigned during 150 years in Ireland and in Albany," records the Chronicle. Albany was the seat of authority in Scotland. The following names indicate that the realm was divided into numerous principalities — probably 15 — over each of which two generations of kinglets reigned.
Thirty kings by name of Brude 150 532-382
Brude Gest Brude Uleo
Brude Urgest Brude Gant
Brude Point Brude Urgant
Brude Urpoint Brude Gnith
Brude Leo Brude Urgnith
Brude Feth Brude Gart
Brude Urfeichir Brude Urgart
Brude Cal Brude Clnd
Brude Urcal Brude Urclnd
Brude Cint Brude Uip
Brude Urcint Brude Uruip
Brude Feth Brude Grith
Brude Urfeth Brude Urgrith
Brude Ru Brude Muin
Brude Ero Brude Urmuin
Gilgidi 101 382-281
Tharan 100 281-181
Morleo 15 181-166
Deocilunan 40 166-126
Cimoiod, son of Arcois 7 126-119
Deord 50 119- 69
Bliciblitherth 5 69- 64
Dectoteric, brother of Diu 40 64- 24
Usconbuts 30 24 B.C.- 7 A.D.
Carvorst 40 7- 47
Deoartavois 20 47- 67
Uist 50 67-117
Ru 100 117-217
Gartnaithboc 4 217-221
Vere 9 221-230
Breth, son of Buthut 7 230-237
Vipoignamet 30 237-267
Canutulachma 4 267-271
Wradech Vechla 2 271-273
Garnaichdi Uber 60 273-333
Talore, son of Achivir — 75 333-408 (Nectanus, a contemporary Pictish king was slain in 361)
Drust, son of Erp or Irb 45 408-453
Though the "Pictish Chronicle" continues the history of the Cruithne without interruption, it is important that the list be stopped here to discover who Drust, the son of Erp, was.
EARLY LINE OF SCOTTISH KINGS
Erp is the Pictish name for the Scottish Erc. Who was this Erc? Late Scottish historians confused this Erp or Erc with Erc the father of Fearghus. Fearghus mac Erc reigned 513-529. This was about a century after Drust mac Erp (or Erc). The two Ercs are not the same person. This is clearly proved by all early Scottish historians. "In two particulars at least, none of the early writers have disagreed: that in the year 503 an invasion of Caledonia took place under the leadership of Fergus mac Erc, and that he and his followers had come to stay" ("Controversial Issues in Scottish History", Gregg, page 35). Then who was the other Erc whose son, a century earlier, returned to rule over the Picts? The answer is found in the early history of the Scots who migrated from Scythia in the year 331-330. In 331 Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian realm. Many nations who had been held in virtual slavery gained their freedom. One of these people was the House of Israel. Israel was invaded in 721 by Shalmaneser of Assyria. After a three-year siege her people were taken into captivity. Ezekiel, over a century later was given a vision in which he saw that the House of Israel would not be released from their enslavement until 390 years had elapsed from the time of the siege of Samaria (Ezekiel 4:3-5). It was precisely 390 years from 721, when the siege against Samaria began, to 331, the date of the final overthrow of Persia and the deliverance out of captivity of the Hebrews. Some of them immediately commenced a migration to the land settled long before by their brethren. In the year 331-330 they journeyed out of Scythia to Scotland — the word Scotland originally meant the land of the Scyths. In Scotland they sent to Ireland for a Scythian-Mileslan prince, of the line of Mileadh, to rule over them. A prince was dispatched, together with a small army. His name was Fergus, the son of Ferquhard. It was his family from which Erp or Erc, the father of Drust, king of the "Picts,'' sprang. Before returning to complete the line of "Pictish" kings, we shall present a summary of the earliest kings to rule over the Scots in Scotland. (It should be remembered that Scotland and Pictland were but two of several early divisions of that land now known as Scotland.) This material is taken from Boethus and Buchanan. The correct outline is that preserved in Anderson's "Royal Genealogies". Buchanan mistakenly shortens the total of the dynasty 16 years. But Roman history confirms the longer form preserved by Anderson on page 753.
First Kings of the Lengths of Reign Dates Scots
1. Fergus 25 330-305 He died in shipwreck off the coast of Ireland, where he went to quell some commotions.
2. Feritharis 15 305-290 Brother of Fergus succeeds, since Fergus' sons are too young.
3. Mainus 29 290-261 Fergus' younger son chosen king, the older, Ferlegus, being condemned for conspiring in his uncle's death.
4. Dornadilla 28 261-233 A son of Mainus
5. Nothatus 20 233-213 Dornadilla's brother; his own son too young to succeed to the throne. A very cruel and despotic ruler, he was slain.
6. Reuther 26 213-187 Dornadilla's son. Dowal, the murderer of Nothatus, exercised great influence over the still young Reuther.
7. Reutha 17 187-170 Son of Nothatus, cousin of Reuther. Reuther's brother rules for his nephew, who is only ten years old. Reutha resigned the government in favour of Thereus his nephew.
8. Thereus 12 170-158 Reuther's son. A cruel and unwise tyrant, driven into exile in his twelfth year, Conan elected viceroy.
9. Josina 24 158-134 Thereus' brother. He greatly honored physicians, as he had been educated among them.
10. Finnan 30 134-104 Josina's son. Established that kings should not decide on great matters without authority of the great council. Ne was devoted to Druidical superstitions.
11. Durstus 9 104- 95 Finnan's son. A vile and debauched ruler. Pretending to reform his life, he invited the nobles and had them slain. He was slain in the ensuing battle.
12. Evenus 19 95- 76 Paternal cousin to Durstus. Exacted oath of allegiance from his subjects.
13. Gillus 3 76- 73 A crafty tyrant, slain by Cadwal, his viceroy, in battle.
14. Evenus II 17 73- 56 Son of Doval; grandson of Josina.
15. Ederus 48 56- 8 Son of Dochamus, Durstus' son.
16. Evenus III 7 8- 1 A wicked and licentious king; the son of Ederus. He was put in prison by the nobles and there murdered by a fellow prisoner.
17. Metellanus 29 "1 B.C."- 29 "A.D." Son of Ederus' brother.
18. Caractacus 20 29- 49 Son of Cadallanus and of Eropeia, Metellanus' sister.
19. Corbred I 18 49- 67 Caractacus' brother.
20. Dardanus 4 67- 71 Metellanus' nephew. A cruel and licentious ruler, he was captured in battle and beheaded.
21. Corbred II. 35 71-106 Corbred's son. After many battles with the Romans, he died at peace.
22. Luctacus 3 106-109 A licentious prince, son of Corbred II. He was slain by his nobles.
23. Mogaldus (Mogallus) 36 109-145 Grandson of Galdus and maternal nephew of Lactacus, son of the sister of Corbred II. Started his reign well but ended it in the ways of his predecessor. Was slain by the nobles.
24. Conarus 14 145-159 Mogaldus' son. He was a partner in the conspiracy against his father. He himself was a lecherous tyrant, was put in prison after only 2 years. Argadus became governor; Conarus was finally slain in prison in 159.
25. Ethodius 33 159-192 Mogaldus' sister's son. He was murdered for personal reasons by an Irish harper.
26. Satrael 4 192-196 Ethodlus' brother, the son was not yet mature enough. This man murdered the nobles and friends of Ethodius, so he could do away with the sons, in order to keep the reign in his family. Was finally strangled by his own servants.
27. Donald I. 21 196-217 Another brother of Ethodius. The first "Christian king" of Scotland. First to coin gold and silver money in the land.
28. Ethodius II. 21 217-238 Son of Ethodius, an intellectually weak and base-minded man. Directed by his nobles, slain by own officers.
29. Athirco 12 238-250 Son of Ethodius. Began his reign decently, but degenerated and committed suicide when pursued by his nobles. Athirco's brother, Dorus, flees from the noble Nathalocus with the three sons of Athirco.
30. Nathalocau 12 250-262 A son of Athirco's brother, he usurped the kingdom; was a cruel tyrant and was slain by the nobles.
31. Findochus 11 262-273 A son of Athirco. A good ruler, he was slain by his own brother at the instigation of Donald the Islander.
32. Donald II. 1 273-274 Findochus' brother. In battle Donald is wounded and dies shortly after.
33. Donald III 12 274-286 Donald the Islander usurped the kingship without any right to it, and ruled very cruelly. He was finally slain by Crathilinthus.
34. Crathilinthus 24 286-310 The son of Findochus, who was hidden for years. After a long series of battles with the wild Picts, and after purging the land of the idolatrous superstition of the Druids and enforcing Christianity, he died.
35. Fincormach 47 310-357 Crathilinthus' cousin. A just ruler.
36. Romachus 3 357-360 Son of oldest brother of Crathilinthus. Obtained the kingdom by force from the two sons of two other brothers of Crathilinthus. Defeated incursions of the wild Picts. His murder ended his evil reign.
37. Angusianus 1 360-361 Son of a brother of Crathilinthus. Angusianus was slain in battle with the Picts' king Nectanus.
38. Fethelmachus 3 361-364 Son of the third brother of Crathilinthus, Devastating the forces of the Picts in battle, they sent assassins who murdered the king.
39. Eugenius I (Evenus) 12 364-376
Fincormach's son. He was killed in battle against the Romans and their Pictish allies. The Scottish kingdom was obliterated. The dead king's brother, with his son Erc, and his grandson, fled to Denmark where he was received by Sivaldus III. The Scottish population scattered throughout Scandanavia. The Romans soon turned on the Cruithne — who were still dwelling in Pictland along with the wild Picts. The Cruithne were miserably oppressed. After three decades they came to an agreement with the Scots and promised to restore the Scots to the throne if they would deliver them from oppression. The son of Erc or Erp returned in 408 at the head of a Scottish army, delivered the Cruithne and restored the throne. This son of Erc or Erp was not Ferghus, as later traditions assumed, but Drust, who became the new king of the Cruithne or Picts. Drust was famous in poetry for having fought 100 battles and lived 100 years. As he ended his reign in 453, he was born 353. He was therefore only 23 years old at the time of the flight of his grandfather and father. Before continuing the remarkable history of the wild Picts which culminated in 503 in Scotland, we should continue with the line of Scottish kings who now sat on the throne over the Cruithne (or the Agathyrsi Picts).
KINGS OF CRUITHNE CONTINUED
Kings of the Cruithne Lengths of Reign Dates
(Drust, son of Erp or Erc 45 408-453)
Talore, son of Aniel 4 453-457
Necton Morbet, son of Erp 25 457-482
Drest Gurthinmoth 30 482-512
Galanau Etelich 12 512-524
Dadrest 1 524-525
Drest, son of Gyrom 1 525-526
Drest, son of Udrost, reigned 5 526-531 jointly with Drest, son of Gyrom
Drest, son of Gyrom, 5 531-536 continues to reign alone
Gartnach, son of Gyrom 7 536-543
Cealtraim, son of Gyrom 1 543-544
Talorg, son of Muircholaich 11 544-555
Drest, son of Munait 1 555-556
Galam, with Aleth 1 556-557
Galam, with Brideo 1 557-558
Bride, son of Mailcon 30 558-588
Gartnaich, son of Domelch 11 588-599
Nectan 20 599-619
Cineoch, son of Luthrn 19 619-638
Garnard, son of Wid 4 638-642
Bridei, son of Wid 5 642-647
Talore, brother of the two 12 647-659 former kings
Talorcan, son of Enfret 4 659-663
Gartnait, son of Donnel 6 663-669
Drest, brother of Gartnait 7 669-676
Bridei, son of Bill 21 676-697
Taran, son of Entisidich 4 697-701
Bredei, son of Derili 11 701-712
Necton, or Naitan, son of Derili 15 712-727
Drest and Alpin reigned together 5 727-732
Onnust, or Oengus, son of Urgust, 31 732-763 or Fergus
Bredei, son of Uiurgust 2 763-765
Kinoid, or Kinoth son of Wirdech 12 765-777
Elpin, or Alpin son of Wroid 3 777-780
Drest, or Durst son of Talorgan 4 780-784
Talargan, son of Onnust 2 784-786
Canaul, son of Tarla 5 786-791
Castantin, or Constantine, son 30 791-821 of Urguist, or Fergus
Unnust, or Hungus, son of Urguist 12 821-833
Drest, son of Constantine, and 3 833-836 Taloran, son of Utholl, reigned together.
Uwen, or Eogan, son of 3 836-839 Unnust
Wrad, son of Bargoit 3 839-842
Bred Brude 3 842-845
Keneth MacAlpin, first king 16 843-859 of all Scotland, united line of Cruithne (or "Picts") with the Milesian Scottish line of Ferghus mac Erc.
This completes the history of the Picts who descended from the intermarriage of the Cruithne and the Judaic Milesian royal house. From the reign of Kenneth MacAlpin the history of the throne of David has already been presented in volume I. But what befell those wild, tribal Picts who gave their name to the Cruithne — and who painted themselves? Remnants of them continued to be referred to as late as the seventeenth century. Most of the population, however, suddenly disappeared in 503 upon the coming of the Milesian Scots out of Ireland under the leadership of Fearghus mac Erc. Those wild Picts were the people who left the many strange and intriguing remains in the Northern Isles of Britain — the mounds, the flint knives, the stonehewn tombs, the carvings. The next chapter explains the link between Scotland and the New World.