The restoration of history begins with this chapter. It has taken years of research to recover all the vital pieces of evidence needed to tell the full story. The assumptions of historians and archaeologists had first to be cleared away. The most difficult part, however, was the recovery of rejected evidence — much of it published over 100 years ago. At last the restoration of the framework of history was complete for Egypt, Babylonia, Assyria, Greece, Media. All the records went back to one momentous event. The event? The building of the City and Tower of Babel! The beginning of the civilization of this world! It commenced as an act of rebellion against the Government of God. It began with the establishment of the Government of Man. And just as one might expect, all the ancient nations began to reckon their kings from this event.
History Corroborates the Bible
The Biblical account of the City and the Tower of Babel may be found in Genesis 11:1-9. In the Jewish Publication Society translation we read:
And the whole earth was of one language and of one speech. And it came to pass, as they journeyed east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar: and they dwelt there. And they said one to another: 'Come, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly.' And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar. And they said: 'Come, let us build us a city, and a tower, with its top in heaven, and let us make us a name: lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.' And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded. And the Lord said: 'Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language: and this is what they begin to do: and now nothing will be withholden from them, which they purpose to do. Come, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech.' So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth and they left off to build the city. Therefore was the name of it called Babel: because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.
The most complete secular record is that found in the Akkadian Creation Epic. It is reproduced in "Ancient Near Eastern Texts", by James B. Pritchard, pages 68-69. This account, like most from ancient pagan sources, is encrusted with myth. But that does not nullify the basic historical evidence contained in the epic. Following are extracts, freely translated, from the Epic of Creation concerning the building of the City and the Tower of Babel. A vague recollection of the Supreme God is discernable.
"'Now, O lord, thou who hast caused our deliverance, What shall be our homage to thee? Let us build a shrine ....' Brightly glowed his features, like the day: 'Like that of lofty Babylon, whose building you have requested, Let its brickwork be fashioned. You shall name it "The Sanctuary"' For one whole year they molded the bricks. When the second year arrived, They raised high the shrine equaling a great height. Having built a stage-tower a great height, They set up in it an abode for Marduk, Enlil, and Ea. "This is Babylon, the place that is your home' ...'"
The account in Genesis describes exactly what is given here — the building of a Tower, or religious edifice, and of a City. The epic then continues with the establishment of human government. At this point the document is fragmentary, but a father and a son are clearly spoken of:
"He set up a throne .... Another in .... 'Verily, most exalted is the son .... His sovereignty is surpassing .... May he shepherd the human race."
The Biblical account reveals who these two individuals were. Cush, the father, and Nimrod, the son. "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth .... And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel ..." (Genesis 10:8, 10). With the reign of Cush and of Nimrod the history of civilization begins. At this point commences also the chronology of Egypt, of Assyria, of Babylonia and of the whole Near East. The exact date of this event was preserved down to Roman times. For Velleius Paterculus cites from Aemilius Sura, in his "Roman History", book I, section VI, the following: "Between this time (when Rome conquered Philip, king of Macedonia) and the beginning of the reign of Ninus (Nimrod) king of the Assyrians, who was the first to hold world power, lies an interval of 1995 years." Philip was conquered in 197. (All dates in this compendium which are not otherwise designated are understood to be before the present era, commonly, though mistakenly, written "B.C.") Nimrod, therefore, began his sole reign in 2192. It followed a joint reign with his father Cush for 62 years, according to Julius Africanus. That places the overthrow of Babel 2254 years before the present era. The two previous years, according to the Epic of Creation, had been spent in erecting Babel. The building of the Tower may therefore be dated 2256-2254. The Bible does not specifically date this event. But it does confirm the general period: "And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided ..." (Genesis 10:25). Certainly the most spectacular confirmation of this date may be found in the history of China. For the Chinese begin their authentic history also 2254 years before the present era. This is no coincidence. China's first king was "black." His eyes shown with "double brightness." That is, theologically, "demon possessed." They called him Shun, and his father's name is spelled variously Chusou or Kusou — that is, Cush. In his days lived a very famous woman whose name may be translated as either "the mother of the king of the west," or the "queen mother of the west " (See the "Annals of the Bamboo Books," "The Chinese Classics", by James Legge, vol. III, part I, pages 114-115.) Before presenting the chronological history of China — which has been preserved without alteration since the Tower of Babel, let us trace in the West the story of these heroes who founded Babel. No story of history is so unusual, so filled with the unexpected.
On to Egypt
The tombs of all the famous heroes who founded Babel are located in Egypt. Egypt early became the second center of civilization. One can now easily understand why both Babylonians and Egyptians claimed to be the first people in the world — claimed their civilization and their religious customs were the earliest. In Egypt we now trace the history of what occurred immediately after Babel. Egyptian history opens with Dynasty I. Its capital was Thinis in Upper Egypt. The names of the first four rulers of Dynasty I are Menes, Athothis, Kenkenes and Uenephes. The spelling of the names is from the Greek of Manetho. The early Egyptian forms vary slightly. Who were these famous individuals? Let the Egyptians themselves provide the answer. Athothis, Egypt's second king, was Osiris. The tomb of Athothis at Abydos was "the sepulchre of the god Osiris, and, as such, became the shrine to which millions of pilgrims made their way," declared Arthur Weigall in "A History of the Pharaohs", vol. I, page 111. The Egyptian god Osiris was the Baal of the Phoenicians, the Marduk of the Babylonians, the Tammuz of the Semites, the Nimrod of the Bible. The Cairo fragment of the Annals of Dynasties I-V preserves a name of the mother of Athothis. She is Hept, meaning "the veiled one." This is a designation of Isis, the mother and wife of Osiris. The Assyrians called Isis or Hept Ishtar or Semiramis. In Scripture she is called Ashtoreth. This woman was originally the queen of Meni. Egypt's first king. She became Athothis' queen and wife after the planned death of Meni. Here is confirmation of the age-old tradition that Nimrod married his own mother. Later. Athothis himself was slain in the 28th year of his reign, according to Plutarch. The father of Athothis, and Egypt's first king, was Meni or Mena — Menes in Greek. His name means "The Establisher" ("History of Ancient Egypt", vol. II, p. 26, by George Rawlinson), or "The Everlasting" (Waddell's "Manetho", p. 215) Menes was the first to ESTABLISH himself as king in place of the Everlasting God. Since Menes was the father of Athothis (Nimrod), he is the Cush of the Bible. "And Cush begot Nimrod, he began to be a mighty one in the earth" (Gen. 10:8). The third name in the first dynasty is Kenkenes, a Greek form of Kenken, meaning "The Terrible." He was born, according to Egyptian tradition, after the death of Osiris. His mother placed him on the throne. She claimed he was the reincarnation of Osiris, or Athothis; hence he is at times called Athothis, or Itit in early fragments. (These various names may be found in Sir Alan Gardiner's "Egypt of the Pharaohs" and in Weigall's "A History of the Pharaohs") He was also named Horus, the son of Isis. Everyone of these famous men of old had many names. Of Nimrod, we read in the Epic of Creation:
"As for us, by however many names we call him, he is our god' Let us then proclaim his fifty names ...."
Listed fourth in Dynasty I is Uenephes. This king was a woman! She called herself Henneit, meaning "Neit is victorious." Neit is the Egyptian form of the Greek Athena. She also called herself Hept, which means "the veiled one," as already noted. This evidence clearly means that the wife of Meni, or Cush, was the mother and later the wife of Nimrod, and later still the mother of Kenkenes or Horus. Years later, she even propositioned her own son Horus, called Gilgamesh in Babylonian tradition, as we read in the following extracts from the Epic of Gilgamesh:
"When Gilgamesh had put on his tiara, Glorious Ishtar raised an eye at the beauty of Gilgamesh: 'Come, Gilgamesh, be thou my lover! Do but grant me of thy fruit. Thou shalt be my husband and I will be thy wife'. Gilgamesh opened his mouth to speak, Thou art but a brazier which goes out in the cold; A back door which does not keep out blast and .windstorm; Pitch which soils its bearers; A waterskin which soaks through its bearer; A shoe which pinches the foot of its owner! Which lover didst thou love forever? Come and I will name for thee thy lovers: Of .... (the story of Cush is broken from the cuneiform tablet) for Tammuz, the lover of thy youth, Thou hast ordained wailing year after year. them."
(Consult Pritchard's "Ancient Near Eastern Texts", pages 83-84. Compare the account of Tammuz with Ezekiel 8:14.)
The Chronology of Dynasty I
Now we are ready to build the chronology of Egypt and of all ancient history from its beginning. Without a knowledge of who these rulers of Dynasty I are, it would be impossible to make sense of the following lengths of reign. The various pieces of information came originally from a full-length account by Manetho. The abstractors each told only part of the full story. No one list is complete in itself, but taken together — in the same way the Bible ought to be studied — every chronological fact makes sense.
Africanus Eusebius Eusebius (Armenian Version) Years Years Years
1 Menes (Cush) 62 60 30
2 Athothis (Nimrod) 57 27 25
3 Kenkenes (Horus or Gilgamesh)
31 39 39
4 Uenephes (Ishtar or Isis) 23 42 42
Eratosthenes gives 62 for Menes and 59 for Athothis. The immediate comment that all modern historians give, is that the list is corrupt. But they have no proof. They have never assembled these figures to tell the full story. Remember, the full account of what really occurred is lost in Manetho's original work. (A few facts have been reclaimed by archaeology.) Each of the abstractors of Manetho told only part of the story. Like the writers of the four gospels, each viewed what he saw in history from a different perspective. What was important to one, did not appear as important to another. It is time scholarship had a little more respect for the documents they purport to handle so judiciously. The numbers in this list, as in almost all ancient history and also the Bible, are calendar years. That explains why they are whole figures. The immediate years after the building of Babel are assigned to Cush, although his son Nimrod reigned jointly with him. The account begins with the reign of Cush or Menes. He began to reign in Shinar, not in Egypt. He came to Egypt where he spent his last 30 years. Cush or Menes ruled altogether 62 years, after which Nimrod began his sole rule of 25 years. Nimrod settled in Egypt 60 years after the building of Babel, and reigned two years jointly with his father. His total reign in Egypt was therefore 27 years. Plutarch records that Osiris (Nimrod) had to flee Egypt at the end of 27 years. He was executed in the summer in his 28th year by Shem, in the month of Tammuz, the 17th day according to ancient tradition. These events may thus be clearly dated as follows:
Menes (Cush) 60 2254-2194 (reign prior to coming of Nimrod)
Athothis (Nisrod) 27 2194-2167 (total reign in Egypt)
Menes (Cush) 62 2254-2192 (total reign of Cush)
Athothis (Nimrod) 25 2192-2167 (sole reign in Egypt)
Cush came to Egypt about 2222 and united Upper and Lower Egypt under his supreme authority for 30 years — 2222-2192. This marks the beginning of Cushite, or Ethiopian, settlement in Africa. Cush, at the time of death, may have been nearly 170 years of age. Josephus confirms this restoration of history in "Antiquities" book VIII, chapter vi, sect. 2: "All the kings from Menes, who built Memphis, ... until Solomon ... was more than one thousand three hundred years." In 2167 Nimrod (Athothis) fled to Italy and was slain there. At the flight of Nimrod, his mother-wife Uenephes also had to flee — tradition states to the Delta. At this point some continued to reckon after the era of Nimrod or Athothis, since he had no male heir. Others reckoned time after his mother-wife who went into hiding. Thirty years passed. Now see how Manetho's figures fit! It was about 57 years after Nimrod had come to Egypt. Suddenly his widow Uenephes or Isis reappears with a son — Kenkenes or Horus. Four years later — 59 years after the death of Menes or Cush, she associates the son with her on the throne of Egypt. Isis or Uenephes thus temporarily triumphs over those who were responsible for the execution of Nimrod. Eight years later — 42 years after the death of Nimrod — the son Horus becomes supreme ruler as his mother turns over to him the reins of government. Horus or Kenkenes reigned altogether 39 years, alone for 31 years. Uenephes therefore reigned, after her return from exile, for 12 years (four years alone and eight years with her son). Afterward she returned to the throne again for 11 years following the departure of Horus for Babylonia, making a total of 23 years. (In Babylon Horus received the name Gilgamesh.) Thus every figure of Manetho, preserved from antiquity, fits. This information may therefore be summarized as follows:
Athothis (Nimrod) 57 2194-2137 (years from Nimrod's coming into Egypt to return of Isis)
Uenephes (Ishtar) 12 2137-2125
Kenkenes (Horus) 31 2125-2094 (sole reign of Horus)
Uenephes — 11 years more, 2094-2083, making a total of 23.
Athothis (Nimrod) 27 2194-2167 (total reign in Egypt)
Uenephes (Ishtar) 42 2167-2125 (years from flight of Nimrod to sole reign of Horus)
Kenkenes (Horus) 31 2125-2094
Athothis (Nimrod) 59 2192-2133 (years from the death of Cush to reign of Horus)
Kenkenes (Horus) 39 2133-2094 (total reign of Horus)
It is immediately noticeable that Horus or Gilgamesh left Egypt exactly 100 years after Nimrod left Babylonia to come to Egypt — 2194-2094. This figure has important significance when we come to comparing Egyptian history with that of the land of Shinar or Sumer, in Mesopotamia.
Shem in Egypt
The first book of Manetho lists four more kings in Dynasty I. Among them is Shem. All classical records agree as to the length of reign. The reconstructed Cairo fragment of the Palermo stone gives different figures, but the same total — indicating there were contemporary reigns, during which more than one ruler shared the throne. A Biblical parallel to this may be observed in the case of Jehoshaphat and Jehoram in Judah (II Kings 8:16).
The figures appear as follows:
Manetho Palermo Stone Restored
5 Usaphais 20 2083-2063 34 2083-2049
6 Miebis 26 2063-2037 19 2049-2030
7 Semempses 18 2037-2019 9 2030-2021
8 Bieneches 26 2019-1993 28 2021-1993
The total length of Dynasty I is 261 years — 2254-1993. The seventh king is especially significant. His original name in the Egyptian records is Semsem — meaning the Great Sem or Shem. In the New Testament Greek, Shem is spelled Sem (Luke 3:36). The hieroglyphics representing Shem depict him in Asiatic, not Egyptian, dress. He appears as an old man with a long beard in priestly garb. Old indeed he was. About 430 years old! Shem left Egypt in 2019 or one year before the death of Noah in 2018 which was 350 years after the Flood Shem probably heard that Noah was approaching death in 2019. Now consider Miebis, the sixth king, and predecessor of Semsem. His tomb was defaced by Semsem. A later section, in volume II, will reveal Miebis to be Osiris II. He was slain by Semsem. The Egyptians called him Typhon. He was the "father" or ancestor of "Judah and Jerusalem," records Plutarch.
Dynasty II of Thinis
The kings of the second dynasty were comparatively insignificant. Other and more powerful rulers were dominating Egypt at this time — ever since the days of Shem, but who they were will be disclosed only after the chronology of the first eight dynasties is firmly established. The change from Dynasty I to II at this point in history will also become apparent, once we begin to examine parallel dynasties who fought over the possession of Abydos and Thinis. The first four rulers of Dynasty II:
Names in Names in Years Manetho King lists of Reign Dates
1 Boethos Bedjau 38 1993-1955
2 Kaiechos Kakau 39 1955-1916
3 Binothris Banutjeren 47 1916-1869
4 Tlas Wadjnas 17 1869-1852
The fragment of the Palermo Stone agrees with this total. In the reign of Binothris "it was decided that women might hold the kingly office," wrote Manetho. This legal decision accounts for the bifurcation of the dynasty within two generations. Manetho's abstractors list both branches of the dynasty in successive order, giving the false impression that one followed the other. This is the very same technique Manetho employed in listing contemporary dynasties. The Turin Papyrus and the Palermo Stone provide the information missing from Manetho. Once again all the evidence must be considered, including Manetho. The fifth king listed by Manetho and the monuments was Sethenes (Sendi in the King-lists). He reigned altogether for 41 years — 1852-1811. The Palermo stone provides the added fact that he associated others with him after his 37th year. His sole reign was 37 years — 1852-1815. At this point he associated Chaires and Sesochris with him on the throne. Sesochris — the eighth in Manetho's list — was succeeded by Cheneres — the ninth in Manetho. Their reigns:
Names in Manetho Names in Years of Reign King-lists In Manetho Dates
Parallel with Sesochris was Chaires, who reigned for 17 years. His successor was Nephercheres (Neferkare in the King-lists). Manetho gives him a total reign of 25 years, but the Palermo Stone and the Turin Papyrus indicate he was removed from the kingship by Sesochris after a reign of only 15 years. The Turin Papyrus preserves the record that Sesochris replaced him for 8 years. Following the usurpation by Sesochris, Nephercheres returned to the throne for 10 more years completing 25 years of reign. He was succeeded by Necherophes, the first king listed by Manetho for Dynasty III of Memphis. In chart form this information appears thus:
Names in Manetho Years of Reign Dates
6 Chaires 17 1815-1798
7 Nephercheres 15 1798-1783
8 Sesochris (Neferkaseker) 8 1783-1775
7 Nephercheres 10 1775-1765
Necherophes 28 1765-1737 (reigns in Memphis)
The Turin Papyrus indicates that the return to power of Nephercheres was facilitated by another prince of royal blood who shared the throne. Though Manetho does not list him, he and his successor appear in the King-lists and in the Turin Papyrus as follows:
Names in King-lists Years of Reign Dates and Turin Panyrus
Hudjefa 11 1775-1764
Beby (Bebty) 27 1764-1737
Thus every date from each document is accounted for. The total length of Dynasty II is 256 years — 1993-1737, Altogether 517 years had elapsed since human government was established after the deluge.
Joseph and the Seven-Years' Famine
It has been necessary to name kings not associated with Biblical events in order to establish the proper date for Dynasty III. This dynasty is one of the most important in all Egyptian history. In it are the records of Joseph's rulership and of the seven years' famine. This dynasty is usually mistakenly placed over a thousand years too early! But before proceeding, we must examine the Turin Papyrus for a most significant summary date. The Turin Papyrus contains the following entry after Dynasty VIII: "Kings since Menes, their kingdoms and years: 949 years: kingless years: 6. Total, 955." (See Gardiner's Royal Canon of Turin.) It also lists 181 years for Dynasty VI. The known length of Dynasty III is 74 years, of Dynasty IV, 123; of Dynasty V, 140; of Dynasty VIII, 140. And remember, Dynasty I and Dynasty II totaled 517 years. Yet the total for the entire period is only 955 years. There is no other possible explanation than that certain of these dynasties reigned parallel with each other. Joseph will be found listed in two of them! To return to Dynasty III — the first dynasty of the city of Memphis. The Turin Papyrus, together with the restored Palermo Stone, provides the complete regnal years of the five successive kings who dominated the dynasty. The name Zoser, the first ruler of the dynasty is also spelled Djoser.
Names of Kings Name in Reigns in Dates in King-lists Manetho Turin Canon
Zoser-za (Netjrikhe) Tosorthros 19 1737-1718
Nebka (of the royal 19 1718-1699 line of Beby)
Zoser-teti Tosertasis 6 1699-1693
Nebkare 6 1693-1687
Huny 24 1687-1663
The end of a seven-year's famine occurred at the close of year 18 of Zoser I (end of winter 1719). No other seven-years' famine is reported during the entire history of the Pharaohs. This is the Biblical seven-years' famine under Joseph. It is at the right time. An account of the calamity is to be found on the rocks of the island of Sehel, at the First Cataract. A modern translation of it may be found in "Biblical Archaeology" by G. Ernest Wright, page 56. The account reads:
"Year 18 .... I was in distress on the Great Throne, and those who are in the palace were in Heart's affliction from a very great evil, since the Nile had not come in my time for a space of seven years. Grain was scant, fruits were dried up, and everything which they eat was short .... The infant was wailing; the youth was waiting; the heart of the old man was in sorrow .... The courtiers were in need. The temples were shut up .... Everything was found empty." (Translation by J. A. Wilson in "Ancient Near Eastern Texts", edited by J. B. Pritchard, page 31.)
But where does Joseph appear in this period? The answer is found in Dynasty III and Dynasty IV of Manetho. He appears under the name Suphis (or Souphis or Saophis) — different Greek spellings from Manetho's abstractors. Joseph in Hebrew, it should be noted, is not pronounced with an English "J" sound, but with a "Y" sound. In Manetho's Egyptian transcription of the name only the consonents "s" and "ph" appear — hence the Greek Souphis or its variant forms. Eratosthenes wrote that the Egyptians had designated Suphis as a "money-getter" or "trafficker" (Fragment 17, "Manetho", by W. G. Waddell, page 219). Dynasty III in Manetho is made up of many rulers which do not appear in the Turin Papyrus. Only the two Djosers appear in each list, and in each case the full length of reign is preserved in Manetho. These otherwise unknown rulers are accounted fiction by modern historians. Had they only looked in the Bible they would have found one of them in the person of Joseph.
Names in Manetho Name in Length of Dates King-lists Reign
1 Necherophes 28 1765-1737 (previously mentioned at end of Dynasty II)
2 Tosorthros Djoser-za 29 1737-1708
3 Tureis 7 1708-1701
4 Mesochris 17 1701-1684
5 Souphis (Joseph) 16 1684-1668
In Dynasty IV Suphis or Joseph is given 66 years by Manetho. This makes it clear that Dynasty IV — a foreign dynasty — parallels Dynasty III. The two records together tell the full story. Only the latter portion of Joseph's reign is preserved in the list of rulers in Dynasty III. The entire period of Joseph's public service is contained in the parallel account. The 66 years of Joseph's public service cover the years 1734-1668. Compare this date with Zoser's seven years of famine. The famine ended in 1719 after the rise in Upper Egypt of the new Nile during the summer of 1720 in Zoser's 18th year. The famine thus extends in Egypt from the spring of 1726 to the spring of 1719 (Jacob came to Egypt in the summer of 1725, after the harvest had failed two years in Palestine ) The seven harvests of great abundance were during the years 1733-1727. Joseph, according to the Bible, came to power in 1734, the year before the beginning of the seven years of prosperity. And 1734 is the very date for the commencement of Joseph's public office, as listed in the fourth dynasty! Joseph was 30 years of age upon entering his service (Gen. 41:46). He thus served till 96 years of age, and died at 110 (50:26). But Manetho's account does not end here. There are yet four kings that complete the dynasty. These kings parallel, in part, those already mentioned, and whose reign is preserved in the Turin Papyrus.
Names in Manetho Names in Turin Length of Dates Dynasty III Canon and King- Reign in list
6 Tosertasis Djoser-teti or 19 1699-1680 Teti
7 Aches 42 1680-1638
8 Sephuris Sahure 30 1638-1608
9 Kerpheres 26 1608-1582
In summary, the third dynasty is divided at times into two or three branches — just as was the second dynasty. The government under this dynasty was centered at Memphis. Not every ruler was of the same rank, of course, but all exercised royal power (Genesis 41:39-44). Although Dynasty IV, in which Joseph's and Job's long reigns are recorded, is parallel with these events, it is better to restore it after the fifth and sixth dynasties are presented.
In Manetho, Dynasty V is designated as from Elephantine — far away to the south, in Upper Egypt on the borders of Nubia. Although Manetho lists nine kings in the dynasty, he plainly states that there were only "eight kings from Elephantine." This mystery has never been solved by historians. Their explanation is that the records are incorrect. Not so. There were only eight kings from Elephantine, because Sephres, the second in the list, was of the Memphis line and had already appeared as Sephuris in the third dynasty. He is the key to the proper dating of Dynasty V. Though from Elephantine, the government was usually centered near Memphis. The Turin Papyrus and the restored Palermo Stone give us the following summary:
Names in Manetho Names in Years of Reign Dates King-lists & in Turin Canon Canon of Turin and Palermo Stone
1 Usercheres Userkaf 7 1627-1620
2 Sephres (mentioned Sahure 12 1620-1608 in Dynasty III as Sephuris)
3 Nephercheres Neferirkare 21 1608-1587
4 Sisires Shepseskare 7 1587-1580
5 Cheres Khaneferre 17 1580-1563
6 Rathures Niuserre 11 1563-1552
7 Mencheres Menkauhor 8 1552-1544
8 Tancheres Djedkare 28 1544-1516
9 Onnos Unis (Unas) 30 1516-1486
With Unis the dynasty comes to a catastrophic end. (He was a contemporary of the Pharaoh who perished at the Red Sea.) The king died the night of the Passover. Unis was a firstborn' He was also a cannibal! After Moses left Egypt, he commenced the frightful practice of eating the firstborn of his enemies. That is one of the reasons God slew the firstborn of Egypt. From the pyramid-tomb of Unis one may read this horrible account of his life, his blasphemous claims, and his deeds. "Behold, Unas hath arrived at the height of heaven .... Ra is on one side and Horus is on the other, and Unas is between them .... Unas hath weighed his word with the hidden god who hath no name, on the day of hacking in pieces the firstborn .... Unas devoureth men .... He ... cutteth off hairy scalps ... the cordmaster hath bound them for slaughter. Khonsu the slayer of ... hath cut their throats and drawn out their inward parts, for it was he whom Unas sent to drive them in: and Shesem hath cut them in pieces and boiled their members in his blazing cauldrons. Unas hath eaten their words of power, and he hath swallowed their spirits; the great ones among them serve for his meal at daybreak, the lesser serve for his meal at eventide, and the least among them serve for his meal at night. The old gods and the old goddesses become fuel for his furnace. The mighty ones in heaven shoot out fire under the cauldrons which are heaped up with the haunches of the firstborn; and he that maketh those who live in heaven to revolve around Unas hath shot into the cauldrons the haunches of their women of the gods in visible form. UNAS IS THE FIRSTBORN OF THE FIRSTBORN existence is ... and the offerings made unto him are more than those made unto the gods ..." (from E. A. Wallis Budge's "A History of Egypt", vol. II, pages 83-88.) Compare King Unis and his blasphemous claims with II Thessalonians 2:3-4. A remarkable analogy. Manetho adds details to this dynasty missing from the Turin Canon. His figures for length of reign clearly illustrate that several kings of Dynasty V reigned jointly as with almost every previous royal line. From Manetho's abstractors the following table may be drawn up:
Name in Manetho Length of Reign Dates
1 Usercheres 28 1648-1620
(The reign of Usercheres in the Turin Papyrus does not begin until 1627, after the end of its Dynasty IV, though he had previously been reigning.)
2 Sephres 13 1620-1607
3 Nephercheres 20 1607-1587
4 Sisires 7 1587-1580
5 Cheres 20 1580-1560
At this point the line of Elephantine divides into two branches. After year 17 of Cheres, Rathures came to power for 44 years and was succeeded by Unis.
6 Rathures 44 1563-1519
9 Onnos 33 1519-1486 (Unis)
After the 20-year reign of Cheres, Tancheres came to power also for 44 years, with Unis as his successor as follows:
8 Tancheres 44 1560-1516
9 Onnos (Unis) 30 in Turin 1516-1486 Canon
For a total period of 9 years Mencheres shared in the government, giving rise to three parallel reigns. Subdivisions of government as here illustrated were quite typical of the ancient world. An example that might be cited is the government of the later Roman Empire when subdivided into two parts, each under two emperors.
Pharaoh of the Exodus
Now for the sixth dynasty. To determine its chronological place in history, we must first establish the end of Dynasty VIII. Dynasty VIII, located at Memphis, was a very weak period — under foreign dominion, as will later be established. It lasted a total of 140 years. Many of the names of its kings have been found, but no regnal dates for any individual kings can be determined. (Consult Gardiner's "Egypt of the Pharaohs", page 437.) This dynasty concludes the 955 years from the beginning of the government of Menes or Cush at Babel, according to the Turin Canon. Its dates are therefore 1439-1299. It was preceded by 6 kingless years, extending from 1445-1439. This period corresponds with Joshua's conquest of Goshen to the Nile (Joshua 10:41 and 11:16). Sometimes these six kingless years are attached to Dynasty VI; on other occasions the period is attached to Dynasty VIII. During this period of six kingless years occurs the ephemeral seventh dynasty. Africanus records that it comprised a kind of council with 70 kings exercising authority for 70 days. Eusebius declares there were 5 kings who ruled for 75 days. Little else is known of the period. Dynasty VI of Memphis immediately preceded this period. It lasted 181 years — 1626-1445. The following chart is determined from archaeological evidence and the Turin Canon.
Names in Manetho Names in Turin Length of Dates Canon and King- Reign
1 Othoes Teti 13 1626-1613
Userkare (a usurper) 6 1613-1607
2 Phios Piopi 20 1607-1587
3 Menthusuphis Merenre 6 1587-1581
4 Phiops Neferkare 94 1581-1487
5 Menthesuphis Merenre-Antyemzaef 1 1487-1486
6 Nitocris Nitokerty 12 1486-1474
(Manetho ends Neferka, the younger 20 1474-1454 his list here) Nufe 2 1454-1452
Kakare (Ibi) 4 1452-1448
(name missing) 2 1448-1446
(name missing) 1 1446-1445
Manetho assigns to Othoes 30 years, at the end of which time he was assassinated by his bodyguard, His total reign extended from 1643-1613. Manetho's second king Phios is assigned 53 years: 1613-1560. He reigned jointly during the early years of his young son Pepi the Great (Phiops Neferkare) Menthusuphis is assigned by Manetho 7 years, and archaeological finds indicate he reigned a year jointly with his young brother before he died (1581-1580). Compare these dates with those of Dynasty V for the Exodus. Dynasty V ended at 1486 with the death of the magician-king (Unis is called Jannes in II Timothy 3:8.) In Dynasty VI king Merenre II also dies in 1486, after only one year's reign. He was succeeded by his wife Nitocris, then by his son Neferka "the younger." Neferka's older brother, the firstborn, died at the Passover. No trace of him has been found. Compare this with Exodus 2:23, "And it came to pass in the course of those many days that the king of Egypt died." This king is Neferkare — more commonly called Pepi II — who reigned the longest in all Egyptian history. He came to the throne at 6 years of age and died at 100. Then God calls Moses. To Moses he declared: "Go, return into Egypt: for all the men are dead that sought thy life" (Exodus 4:19). Merenre II was now reigning — the Pharaoh whom Moses and Aaron met and who perished in the Red Sea. At this juncture in history Egypt collapsed. Foreign invaders enter the land — but who they were and where they came from must wait until all the previous dynasties before the Exodus are determined.
Dynasty IV — the Pyramid Builders
To return to the story of Joseph. Parallel with Dynasty III of Memphis, was Dynasty IV, "eight kings of Memphis belonging to a different line." This dynasty includes such famous names as Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus — to use the names made familiar by Herodotus. The list of kings of the fourth dynasty in the Turin Canon and on the Palermo Stone differs from Manetho after Cheops. The result, no doubt, of the tragic plague that came upon Cheops (Job). The Palermo Stone and the Turin Canon begin Dynasty IV 123 years before Dynasty V. That means it commenced the 24-year reign of Snefru in 1750. The following dates are from Turin Canon and restored Palermo Stone.
Name in King-lists Length of Reign Dates and on Turin Papyrus
Snefru 24 1750-1726
Khufwey (Cheops) 23 1726-1703
(According to Herodotus, the Great Pyramid took 20 years to build, much of it during the time of the seven-years' famine when labor was available. The loss of authority after 23 years appears to correspond with the plague on Job. At this point the death of several of the sons of Cheops is recorded at the tombs near Gizeh) Continuing:
Radjedef 8 1703-1695
Khafre 27 1695-1668
Hardjedef 7 1668-1661
Baufre 28 1661-1633
Shepseskaf 4 1633-1629
(name missing) 2 1629-1627
At this point this branch of the dynasty was succeeded by the kings of Dynasty V, from Elephantine. The following is the information preserved by Manetho who begins the dynasty five years earlier than does the Turin Canon. (Note that Cheops is designated as Job. See May 1958 "Good News", p. 3.)
Names in Manetho Names in King- Length of Dates lists Reign
1 Soris Snofru or 29 1755-1726 Snefru
2 Suphis (Cheops Khufwey 63 1726-1663 or Job)
3 Suphis (Joseph) —- 66 1734-1668
4 Mencheres Menkaure 63 1668-1605
Parallel with Mycerinus were the following:
5 Ratoises —- 25 1668-1643
6 Bicheris —- 22 1643-1621
7 Sebecheres —- 7 1621-1614
8 Thampthis —- 9 1614-1605
Herodotus tells us that according to Egyptian tradition there were 150 years between the beginning of the dynasty and the end of the life of Mycerinug, 1755-1605. Manetho's account appears senseless to historians because they have assumed there were no other kings than those whose records they have found through archaeology. It is often the men who were least important in their own age whose tombs or monuments have been recovered, while the individuals who loomed large at the time have vanished completely.